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TAMU ARTS 149 - Predynastic Egypt

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ARTS 149 1st Edition Lecture 7Continuation of Egypt Art: Predynastic, Early Dynastic, and Introduction to Old KingdomI. Map of Ancient Egypt a. Divided into 2 dynasties i. Each dynasty was based on family linesb. These dynasties were divided into kingdomsII. Predynastic Kingdom (ca. 3,000 – 2,950 BCE)a. Upper and Lower Egypt were unifiedi. Upper Egypt = Southern Egypt; upstream to Nileii. Lower Egypt = Northern Egypt; downstream to NileIII. Art in Predynastic Kingdom (ca. 3,500 – 3,200 BCE)a. Detail Wall Painting from Tomb Hierakonpolisi. Water color of boats down Nile and peopleii. Similarity to CatalHoyuk and Deer Hunt1. People are placed randomly in both scenesiii. Similarity to Mesopotamian Sound Box1. Heraldic pose is seen in bothb. Palette of King Narmer (ca. 3,000 BCE)i. Palette – a stone slab with circular depression which usually is used to place eye makeup on 1. Besides its typical use, this palette is also ceremonial because it is a palette for the God’sii. This palette, specifically, represents the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt iii. Back of Palette 1. King Narmera. Hierarchy Scaling is seen; King Narmer is much larger thanother characters on back of Palette b. He wears a crown of Upper Egypt showing his power of this area2. Horus a. Seen as a falcon with a human hand b. Stands on a papyrus plant which is a symbol of lower Egypt3. Hathor – Goddess is seen on the palette These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.4. Registers are seen here alsoiv. Front of Palette1. Sun disk – circular area where makeup would be placed a. Formed by panther-like creatures intertwined necksb. The sun disk created from these intertwined necks symbolizes unification2. King Narmera. Seen again in 2nd register from top in hierarchy scaling b. Here he wears the crown of Lower Egypt 3. Lower Register a. Large Bull- represents king’s super human strengthb. Aerial Scene – first architectural plan ever documentedIV. Architecture ofPredynastic Egypt a. Most structures and houses were built of mud-brick and plants i. These have mostly been lost over the years and not too many of these remains are lefb. Temples were made of stone and are mostly the only architectural remains lefi. These show desire for permanence, stability and orderc. Mastaba – tombs i. PREDYNASTICii. Located west of city so deceased could begin journey to the next world 1. It was thought that the next would was located in the west, where the sun setsiii. Literally the Arabic word for “bench”iv. Contained an underground burial chamber with a chapel for the people mourning the deadv. Paintings, sculptures, and riches were found in these to provide the deceased with supplies (i.e. food, clothing) during new lifevi. Differences from Ziggurats?1. Mastabas are tombs, whereas ziggurats are temples2. Because they were tombs, people were not meant to go inside and they lack staircases3. Mastabas were meant for the dead, not the livingd. Evolution of Pyramidi. Mastaba begins low and rectangular (typically one story) with deceased buried below ii. Progressed to Stepped Pyramid – basically were stacked pyramids (i.e. Djoser’s Complex)iii. Finally evolved into Pyramids1. More chambers are located in these and are solely meant for Pharaohs2. Contained more complicated passageways and false entryways in order to prevent thieves V. Architecture of Early Dynastic Egypta. Imhotep’s Stepped Pyramid and Mortuary Precinct of Djoser (ca. 2,630 – 2,611 BCE)i. EARLY DYNASTIC ii. Imhotep planned it and is the 3rd architect known iii. First Royal Tombiv. Each corner of stepped pyramid points in direction of N, E, S, Wv. The stacking structure forms a symbolic stairway to heaven vi. Beneath pyramid was channels to resemble a palace 1. This would be the place for the king to live in during new life afer death b. Columnar Entrance Corridor to Mortuary Precinct of Djoser (ca. 2,630 – 2,611 BCE)i. EARLY DYNASTICii. Columns are earliest known columns iii. Classical columns with capitals and shafiv. Had a major influence on Greek columns c. Façade of the North Palace to Mortuary Precinct of Djoser (ca. 2,630 – 2,611 BCE)i. EARLY DYNASTICii. Capitals resemble papyrus plantsiii. Columns are attached to wall – this is called “engaged columns” VI. Gods and Goddesses of Egypta. Ra – sun godb. Amun – supreme godc. Osiris – king of order/wordd. Seth – antithesis of ordere. Isis – sister and wife of Osiris (represents life)f. Horus – Son of Osiris and protector of pharaoh g. Hathor – wife of horus and dive mother of pharaoh (appears as cow)h. Thoth – god of writing, science and lawi. Bastet – daughter of ra (a cat)VII. Symbols of Pharaoh to be familiar with a. Ankh – symbol of life; a looped crossb. Wadjet – eye of Horus ; sun and moonc. Nemes –striped headdress, blue & gold, worn by pharaoh d. Uraeus cobra – represents the goddess, Wadjet, patron goddess of lower Egypti. Also represents protection ii. Worn on foreheade. Scarab – a beetle hatched from the earth; symbolizes rebirth and signs of new lifef. Cartouche – oval shape around namesi. Whatever is included within the circle typically is what the ruler has power overg. False beard, scepters and staffi. False beards were even worn by the women pharaohs VIII. Mummification a. Essential for passage into afer lifeb. A way of persevering human bodies for Ka to live in afer death c. Body was washed and ritually purified by priestsd. Internal organs were removed, soaked in a salty solution for preservation, wrapped up, and placed in canonic jars e. Heart was lef in body (considered to be the place of intelligence and most important part)f. Brain was removed and disposed ofg. Body was stuffed with linen and then wrapped layer by layer with payers performed between each layerh. Total process took 70 daysi. Opening the Mouth Ceremony i. Done so mummy could eat in afer-lifeii. funeral procession was on the day of burialiii. procession would go to the edge of the Nile to the western side of Egyptj. Estimated 70 million mummies from Egypti. Many of them were destroyed and used as fuel thought (Egypt did not have resources like wood to burn and were forced to use mummies)ii. There was a mummy craze and many mummies were ground up and then used in medicine k. Animals were also mummifiedl. This mummification process stopped afer


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