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TAMU ARTS 149 - Old Kingdom

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ARTS 149 1st Edition Lecture 8Egypt Art: Continuation of Old Kingdom(ca. 2,575 – 2,134) and Introduction to Middle Kingdom (ca. 2,030 – 1.640 BCE)I. Pyramids of Giza Continued . . . a. Placement of Pyramidsi. Located on west side of Nileii. Facing east and the rising sunb. Two Temples of the Pyramid Complexi. Mortuary temple of Khafre and Valley temple of Khafreii. Rituals would be performed in both and then his body would be placed in his burial chamberiii. Smaller pyramids and mastabas of royal family flanked the templesc. Pyramid of Khafrei. Highest evaluation so it appears as largest, but it is smaller than pyramid of Khufuii. 4th Pharaoh d. Conservation of pyramidsi. Quite a lot of itii. Amount of visitors per day is controlled1. 150 people in morning and 150 in eveninge. Gallery in Pyramid of Khufui. Large rectangular blocks that make up the pyramid can easily be seen ii. Located between queen’s chamber and king’s chamberII. Sculpture of Old Kingdom a. Substitute of the perishable body as a place for Ka (if mummy was destroyed)b. Great Sphinx (ca. 2,500 BCE)i. Old Kingdomii. It guards the city of the deadiii. It is a symbol of the sun iv. Believed to be of the pharaoh Khafrev. Shown with body of animal and face of Pharaoh Khafre showing that he has the intelligence of Human, but strength and ability of the King of animals, the lionvi. Preservation of Great Sphinx1. A retaining wall was built by the Romans2. Sometimes it is completely covered by sand so that it isn’t eroded by windThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.vii. Faces rising sunviii. Similar to Lamassu from the Citadel of Sargon II1. Both are composite figures2. Both are large3. Both are representative of a ruler4. Both symbolize protectionc. Khafre (ca. 2,520 – 2,494 BCE)i. Old Kingdomii. Made of diorite (super hard rock)iii. Found in Gizehiv. Details of sculpture that indicate it is the pharaoh, Khafre1. Nemes Headdress2. False beard3. Ureas cobra4. Wings of Horus are on back of head a. Horus was believed to be the actual brother of the Pharaoh v. Shown as very muscular vi. Lotus and papyrus plant seen and is symbolic of unificationvii. Sits on throne in compact way 1. Meant to last for eternity viii. Canon of Proportions1. A grid geometric system that would allow for person to be proportioned2. This use made many sculptures the same sized. Menkaure and Khamerernebty (ca. 2,490 – 2,472 BCE)i. Old Kingdomii. Carved into slate iii. Used cannon of proportionsiv. Typical Egyptian stance is seen – right foot forward in stride and face-forwardv. Wife is seen touching arm of pharaoh and her arm is around his waste this was a typical depiction of marital status vi. Traces of red paint was found on Pharaoh which was typically used on males in Egyptian arte. Seated Scribe (ca. 2,450 – 2,350)i. Old Kingdomii. Painted limestone sculpture iii. He is seen seated, writing on a scroll and looking alertiv. He differs from Kings/Pharaoh sculptures in that he is shown in a naturalistic way (not idealized)1. He is not muscular (flabby stomach)2. He has sunken in cheeks3. He is seen sitting on ground (not standing in stride)f. Ka-Aper (ca. 2,450 – 2,350) i. Old Kingdomii. Again shown in a naturalistic way and we can tell he is not a king1. Larder bellyiii. But, he does show typical Egyptian conventions in that he is 1. Seen in a formal way2. He is stiff in his stature3. Shown with right foot forward in strideiv. He is carved into wood v. He is an official vi. Most wooden artifacts from ancient Egypt rotted and deteriorated1. This was one preserved because it was in an airtight tombIII. Paintings of Old Kingdoma. Purposei. Created to serve the needs of the deadii. Let us know what they would have needed during their life time; what typical Egyptian life was likeb. Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt (ca. 2,450 – 2,350)i. Old Kingdomii. Relief painting on limestone in mastaba of Tiiii. Appearance1. Depicts a hunting scene; in Egyptian times a successful hunt was considered to be conquering forces of evil2. Surroundings are free-looking/naturala. He is seen within a papyrus swamp with fish and hippos in the waterb. Birds and foxes in trees3. Pharaoh however is depicted in typical, stiff Egyptian style a. Torso faces us b. Legs, feet, and face are facing forward in profilec. Hierarchy scale is also seen hereIV. Middle Kingdom (ca. 2,050 – 1,640 BCE)a. Civil unrest exists during this time b. Invasions of the Hykos also occursc. Head of Senusret III (ca, 1,850)i. Carved into yellow quartzite ii. Different from old kingdom art in that the ruler is shown to be 1. emotionally drained from his rule2. showing some crease lines at cheeks and eyes are sunken in 3. Whereas old kingdom rulers (i.e. Khafre) were always shown as confident and serene and idealized d. Rock-cut Tombs in Beni Hasan(ca. 1,950 – 1900 BCE)i. During 11th and 12th dynasties of middle kingdom, tombs were hollowed out of cliffs ii. Portico – entrance to rock-cut tombiii. Also included a main hall, burial chamber and chapeliv. In the tombs of Beni Hasan there were painted scenes on interior walls e. Paintings of Beni Hasan Tombs during Middle Kingdomi. Painting of Picking Figs1. Here the upper torsos are seen in more life-like profile posture (not like typical old kingdom forward-facing style of


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