UMass Amherst NUTRITN 130 - Final Exam Study Guide (28 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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This goes over the entire second half of the semester.


Pages:
28
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Nutritn 130 - Nutrition for a Healthy Lifestyle
Edition:
1
Documents in this Packet
Unformatted text preview:

Nutrition 130 1st Edition Learning Objectives Know what causes the formation of free radicals Know diseases associated with free radical change Describe how antioxidants help in cancer and CHD prevention Identify the modifiable risk factors of cancer Know dietary recommendations to reduce cancer risk Identify which nutrients function as antioxidants and identify their functions outside of antioxidant function food sources and diseases of deficiency Know the increased needs of smokers for antioxidants Know benefit risk of antioxidant supplements Free Radicals Atom with an extra unpaired election forms a free radical o Are molecules that are unstable ATP is the energy currency of the body How Free Radicals are Formed Oxidation reduced reactions normal cell processes Pollution Ultraviolet light and radiation tanning Toxic substances Free Radical Damage Cell membranes are damaged Low density lipoproteins LDLs Proteins in the cell Genetic material DNA Disease related to Free Radicals Cancer Heart Disease Eye disease o Cataracts o Age related macular Parkinson s Antioxidants A compound that has the ability to prevent or repair the damage caused by oxidation Antioxidant Micronutrients Vitamin E Vitamin C Beta Carotene Vitamin A may have antioxidant properties Copper iron zinc manganese Cardiovascular disease Antioxidants may reduce the risk of CVD by o Preventing free radical damage oxidation of LDL cholesterol o Acting as an anticoagulant to prevent blood clots o Reduce inflammation Cancer development Normal cell initiation promotion further tumor development malignant cells Causes initiation and Promotion Tobacco Sun exposure Diet Toxins occupational exposure Low physical activity Antioxidants can stop initiation and promotion Antioxidants also Enhance immune system Inhibit growth of cancer cells Prevent oxidative damage to cells Review Question What is a free radical What is an antioxidant How do antioxidants help fight cancer and heart disease 10 29 14 Learning Objectives Know what causes the formation of free radicals Know diseases associated with free radical damage Describe how antioxidants help in cancer and CHD prevention Identify the modifiable risk factors of cancer Know dietary recommendations to reduce cancer risk Identify which nutrients function as antioxidants and identify their functions outside of antioxidant function food sources and diseases of deficiency Know the increased needs of smokers for antioxidants Know benefit risk of antioxidant supplements Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding free radicals Our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals Which of these diseases have been linked to free radical damage Cancer Heart Disease Diabetes all of the above Dietary Risk Factors Processed meat red meat Alcohol Weight Breastfeeding o Protects the mother Fruits and vegetables o Protective Soy o Protective Cancer Bowel o Food red meat beef and pork Advice 3 times a week Stomach and Bowel o Processed meat evidence strongest for red meat but current recommendation includes turkey Seldom Esophagus mouth throat bowel breast o Alcohol Be moderate All cancers o Weight Stay within normal range Breast o Breastfeeding protective for mother and baby Do it for at least 6 months Processed Meat Nitrites o Why we use them Give processed meats pink color Inhibit microbial growth o Health issues Converted to nitrosamines Didn t finish Vitamin E Fat soluble vitamin Destroyed by heat Found in o Vegetable oils nuts wheat germ Functions o Normal fetal and early childhood nerve and muscle development o Has a role in immunity o Antioxidant 10 31 14 Vitamin C Functions Water soluble vitamin Antioxidant o Stabilizes free radicals DRI healthy adults o Males 90 mg day smokers 125 mg o Females 75 mg day 110 mg Water soluble vitamin DRI is higher in smokers Sources fruits and vegetables varies Functions o Antioxidant in extracellular fluid and lungs o synthesis in collagen o enhances immune system and iron absorption non heme A fat soluble vitamin It is destroyed by heat It is found in oils and nuts It is an antioxidant Vitamin E Beta Carotene Precursor to Vitamin A o Part of a group called carotenoids o More available when cooked Functions o Antioxidant Stabilizes free radicals o No DRI Found in pumpkins sweet potatoes spinach collards kale turnip greens carrots Toxicity and deficiency o No known toxicity o Skin may turn yellow Antioxidant supplements may increase cancer risk Vitamin A Fat soluble Stored in liver adipose tissue kidneys lungs May be antioxidant Functions o Vision o Immunity o Cell differentiation o Sperm production Found in fortified milk beef liver brightly colored veggies Toxicity o Toxic especially from supplements Deficiencies o Night blindness Dietary Guidelines o Eat more fruits and veggies o Make your plate fruits and veggies Additional o Zinc iron copper and manganese Review Questions Which foods are associated with stomach and colorectal cancer Food sources functions and deficiency symptoms of vitamin A C What is beta carotene what do we know about health outcomes of supplementation What nutrient has an increased RDA in smokers 11 3 14 Learning Objectives Define phytochemicals and describe how they can affect health Identify foods that are in car Phytochemicals Chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants Are responsible for color and organoleptic properties Have biological significance Not established as essential nutrients Health functions Antioxidants Reduce inflammation Enhance detoxifying enzymes Slow cancer tumor cell growth Enhance the immune system May effect microbiome Lower blood cholesterol Phytochemicals consist of 3 types Flavonoids o Berries tea olives soybeans chocolate red wines Carotenoids o Food sources Red orange and deep green fruits and vegetables Phytoestrogens o Soybeans and soy products Phytochemicals From nature Don t always see same benefits when phytochemicals investigated independently From manufacturer isn t as good The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act 94 DSHEA Classifies supplements of vitamins minerals amino acids herbal remedies as food Prevents the US FDA from regulating supplements as additives or drugs FDA must prove the food supplements is unsafe before it can be pulled from the shelf Dietary supplements can be sold without FDA approval Labels Structure Function Claim Disclaimer This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA This produce is not intended to diagnose treat cure or prevent any disease


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