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FSU OCE 1001 - Exam 4

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Chapter 14What strategies or methods help an organism float?They have adaptions to increase surface areaOthers produce oil to help maintain neutral buoyancyWhat are common characteristics or adaptions for a fish that lives a cruising lifestyle?Red muscle tissue (25-50 meters diameter) supplies the fish with greater amounts of oxygen, much higher metabolismLunate or Heterocercal finsWhat advantages does schooling behavior offer?Ensures fertilization of eggsAllows smaller fish to feed in area with aggressive fishProtects fish from predatorsWhat are some of the common adaptions for deep-water nekton?Low metabolism ratesGood sensory devices to find foodBioluminesce to seeLarge eyesLarge sharp teethExpandable bodies to accommodate large food itemsHinged JawsWhat is the purpose of a fish’s swim bladder?Fills with oxygen, allows fish to achieve neutral buoyancyWhat is a general rule to help determine how fast a given fish can swim?The larger the fish, generally, the faster it can swimWhy is the ability to bioluminescence beneficial?Searching for foodAttracting preyStaking out territoryCommunicationEscaping predators by blinding themCamouflagingWhat group of animals makes up the majority of the ocean’s zooplankton biomass?CopepodsWhat are some examples of macroscopic zooplankton?Krill, cnidarians, hydrozoan, scyphozoanWhat are the differences between commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism?Commensalism: Smaller or less dominant organism benefits without harming hostMutualism: Both participants benefitParasitism: One participant benefits at the expense of anotherKnow the fin types!Why do marine mammals look and behave similar fish?They both have adapted for moving efficiently in waterOn average, how fast can a fish swim if its body length is 1 meter?Up to 3 meters per secondWhy do big baleen whales, such as the blue whale, eat small creatures such as krill?The biomass is much more abundant in the smaller organisms.Why do you think that most cetaceans use sound for communication and echo-location?Good vision is limited, but sound can travel farLow frequencies = great rangeHigh frequencies = close range, more detailWhat characteristics are shared by all mammals, including marine mammals?Breathe air, have hair or fur, bear live youngList 6 differences between seals and sea lions.Seals lack prominent ear flaps that are specific to sea lionsSeals have smaller and less-prominent front flippersSeals have prominent claws that extend from their fore flippers that sea lions lackSeals have different hip structure, seals cannot move their rear flippersSeals don’t move on land as wellWhat are some adaptations that marine mammals have that allow for deep diving?All except: They can acquire oxygen from dissolved waterToothed whales have an organ called the ‘melon’, what is it and what is it and what is it used for?An organ that acts as an acoustical lens, focusing the soundWhat is a ‘baleen’ and what is it used for?Parallel rows of plates in their mouth. They are used to filter the water and the fish caughtWhat does IWC stand for and what is it?International Whaling CommissionManages subsistence and commercial hunting of large whalesAccording to the IWC what are the 3 ways to engage in legal hunting of whales?Whaling by objection: not signing the treatyScientific WhalingAboriginal subsistence whalingWhy does the distribution of benthic organisms math the distribution of surface productivity?Benthic organisms depends on the food supply from surface waters, so if productivity is high then more food reaches themWhat are some common adaptations for organisms that live in rocky shores?They can withstand salinity changesThey can withstand temperature changesThey have strong methods of attachment to their substrate to withstand pounding wavesHow does predation intensity vary within the Rocky Intertidal Zone?Predation increases as you move deeper into the intertidal zoneHow do the factors that affect Rocky Intertidal Zonation change from higher ground to lower/deeper ones?At higher ground zonation is mostly affected by physical factors while deeper, biological factors become more importantChapter 15Why are corals rarely found near rivers?They need salt water, the water near rivers is too fresh.Corals are intolerant of reduced salinityWhat is the main limitation of life on the deep sea floor?Not abundant food supplyWhat are coral reefs important to ocean life?They are home to 25% of marine lifeProvide shelter, food, and breeding groundsMost diverse communities in marine environmentWhat are the conditions necessary for coral reef development?Temperatures between 18 C to 30 CStrong sunlightSalt waterLack of turbidityStrong wave/current actionA hard substance for attachmentWhat are zooxanthellae?Symbiotic photosynthetic microscopic dinoflagellate algae that live within the corals tissue (accounts for up to 75% biomass of reef building coral)Why is an increase of ocean acidity harmful to corals?Higher acidity makes it more difficult for corals to grow their calcium carbonate skeletonsWhat is a hydrothermal vent community?Community of organisms that thrive on the hydrothermal vents on the deep ocean floorMostly dependent upon sulfur-oxidizing bacteriaWhat is chemosynthesis?Manufacturing of carbohydrates from water, carbon dioxide, and dissolved oxygenSulfuric acid is produced as a byproductDone by ArchaeaIn addition to hydrothermal vents, what are the other 3 types of biocommunities found in the deep-sea that depend on chemosynthesis?Hypersaline seepHydrocarbon seepSubduction zone seepHydrothermal ventWhat is the deep biosphere and what organisms have been found living there?An environment that exists within the seafloor itselfMicrobesChapter 16The general scientific consensus is that if levels of human caused emissions continue to increase, what will happen?Overall, Earth will get warmer and the global distribution of climate patterns will changeWhat does the Milankovitch cycle refer to?It refers to the cycle that takes into account Earth’s eccentricity, obliquity, and precession. When these variations cyclically coincide they tend to amplify each other and affect Earth’s climateThe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) most recent assessment report in 2007 asserted what about climate change?Climate change is caused, at least in part, by human emissions and climate change is already altering conditions on Earth.Why is it that a winter may be colder for one season if Earth is said


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