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FSU OCE 1001 - TEST 2: OCEANOGRAPHY

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1TEST 2: OCEANOGRAPHY• What are the primary factors that determine wave height? o Wind speed (the prevailing wind), length of time wind blows in one direction (the continental shelf), and fetch• If you have two deep-water waves with periods of 5 and 10 seconds, what can you say about their speeds? o The longer period wave will have greater speed• Where would it be most likely that you would find internal waves in the ocean? o At the pycnocline• What is the difference between longitudinal waves and transverse waves? o In longitudinal, motion of the medium is parallel to the direction of the wave. Particels move back and forth in the direction of the energy transmission. in transverse, particles move back and forth at right angles to the direction of the energy• Describe circular orbital motion.o Movement up and down, back and forth. up and backward-up and forward-down and forward-down and backward. The energy is the only thing moving• How can you calculate wave speed? o Wavelength/wave period• What are shallow-water waves?o When the seafloor drastically affects the moving wave. At depths where the wavelength is less than 1/20; wave orbits are squashed into ellipses.• What are transitional waves? o Characteristics of both deep and shallow-water waves. Celerity depends on both water depth and wavelength. Happens between 1/20 and 1/2• Describe how wind-generated waves develop. o As ripples generate, the wave comes into more and more friction and gets bigger. Capillary to gravity to trochoidal• What is constructive interference?2o In-phase wave trains with about the same wavelengths • All of the following are characteristics of waves except ____o Shoals o crests, troughs, oscillating patterns are characteristics• What happens to a rubber duck sitting on the water surface when waves pass by?o It moves in nearly circular motion always returning to the same spot• If you were a submarine commander and wanted to go deep enough that your ship would not feel the effect of 200-foot wavelength storm waves, how deep would you have to dive?o 100 feet • Why do tsunami waves always behave as shallow water waves?o There waves are long enough that anywhere in the ocean the water depth is less than L/20• What causes tsunamis?o Earthquakes, submarine landslides, large meteor impacts, volcanic eruptionso Lunar tides• Why does wave height increase in shallow water?o Wave orbital motion is constricted by the sea bottom• What is wave reflection?o Explained by the bouncing back of the wave energy caused by waves striking a hard barrier• What is wave refraction?o Bending of waves toward regions where they go slower, nearly parallel to shoreo Wave converge on headlands due to: wave refraction• How are standing waves formed?o Two waves with same wavelength moving in opposite directions- water particles move vertically and horizontally. Water sloshes back and forth.• How does the tsunami warning system in the Pacific ocean work?3o Uses seismic wave recordings to forecast a tsunami. Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami.(DART) System of boys- detects a pulse of tsunami passing deep ocean transmitter-buoy-satellites-land based receiving station• What are the 3 types of breakers and how are they generated?o Spilling Breakers- gently sloping sea floor. Wave energy expended over long distanceo Plunging Breakers- moderately steep sea floor. Wave energy expended over shorter distance. Best for surfers. Curling wave crest.o Surging breakers- steepest sea floor. Energy spread over shortest distance. Best for body surfing. Waves break on the shore. • If the Moon had an iron core, what would happen to lunar tides?o The tides would become larger because the moon is more massive• The lunar tidal bulge has a period of 12 hours and 25 minutes, but the solar tidal bulge period is 12 hours. Why the difference?o The moon moves around the moon in its orbit• If you are in a boat in an estuary, when will tidal currents going out to sea be strongest? o Halfway between high tide and low tide • Why are spring tides highest when the Moon is near perigee?o The moon is closer to the Earth, so gravitational force is greater• If a point on the coast experiences a semi-diurnal tide, what does the daily tide record show?o Two nearly equal high tides and two nearly equal low tides each day• The tide is sweeping across the ocean toward land. The continental shelf is significantly wider at one location than another farther down the coast. What will happen to the tide at the location where the shelf is wider?o The tide will be retarded• In the absence of friction (and other complicating factors) where would the maximum ideal lunar tide occur?o At two points, directly beneath and opposite the Moon. The Moon and Sun are lined up.• What are the different types of tidal patterns?4o Dirunal tidal patterns, Semidiurnal patterns, Mixed tidal patterns (triurnal tidal patterns are not a type of pattern) • How can tidal power be harnessed?o Trapping water behind costal barriers in bay and estuarieso Allowing tidal currents to pass through narrow channels to turn turbines • If a point on the coast experiences a semi-diurnal tide, what does the daily tide record show?o Two nearly equal high tides and two nearly equal low tides each day• In winter, sand from some beaches disappears. Where does it go?o Winter wave action moves the sand offshore into bars, located just below the wave base.• Longshore current generally flows in which direction(s) along the coasts of the United States?o Southward along both coasts• What is eustatic sea level change and what are some examples?o Glacial isostatic subsidence and rebounds• If you are at the beach and blunder into a rip current, how do you get out?o Swim perpendicular to the current until you are out (usually parallel to shore)• What would happen to a river delta if damming reduced the amount of sediment in the river?o The delta would erode and subside below sea level• What would happen to longshore transport along the coast if rivers on the coast were dammed, trapping sand behind the dams?o The longshore transport would become less• What is the purpose of hard stabilization? o To protect a coast from erosion • Describe 3 alternatives to hard stabilization?o Beach nourishment o Construction restrictionso Relocation5• Describe 4 examples of hard stabilization? o Jetty o o o • What is the defining characteristic of an


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