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FSU OCE 1001 - Study Guide

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Oceanography Exam 3 Study Guide i-Clicker Questions1. Of Earth’s total number of species, why are the fewest in the marine pelagic realm? Uniform conditions in the pelagic realm make fewer specialized environments for organism adaptations as different species2. What are Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria? The 3 domains of life3. What marine organism represents the vast majority of the ocean’s biomass? Plankton4. Plankton are organisms that float. Why is a copepod, which can swim and propel itself through the water, classified as plankton? Because of its small size, it cannot swim very fast or very far, so its location is determined by currents5. What is an autotrophic organism An organism that can photosynthesize and produce their own food6. What is meroplankton? Organisms that only spend part of their life cycle as plankton7. Organisms that live on the bottom but can swim or crawl through the water are called what? Nektobenthos8. What is the primary factor that limits life on the deep-ocean floor? Limited food supply9. Why is the surface area to volume ratio important for phytoplankton? A larger ratio helps them stay afloat by providing more resistance to sinking10. Why do most fish and marine mammals have the same torpedo-like, streamlined shape? The streamlined shape minimizes energy expended to move through the water11. What are the reasons the ocean has a smaller daily, seasonal, and annual temperature range than that experienced on land? All of the above12. What is the definition of eurythermal? Organisms that can tolerate large changes in temperature13. Freshwater fish are isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic relative to their environment? Hypertonic14. Most fresh water fish are hypertonic, meaning their body cells contain more salt than the surrounding water. Since osmosis should push water into their cells, why don’t they explode? To reduce the amount……………they do not drink water…….volumes of dilute urine15. How does water pressure change with depth? Pressure increases with depth16. What is the euphotic zone? The zone where there is enough light to support photosynthesis17. What is the term used to refer to the total mass of all living organisms? Biomass18. In photosynthesis, what three things must come together to produce sugar and oxygen? Light, water and carbon dioxide19. What is the difference between gross productivity and net productivity? Gross productivity is all the organisms…..photosynthesizers while Net productivity……leftover after subtracting the organisms…..respiration20. Why are sessile, plant-like macroalgae (i.e., those attached to the ocean bottom) only found in littoral and sub-littoral environments? They require light to reach the ocean bottom, which only occurs in these two zones21. What is responsible for the red tide? Red tide occurs in patches of water where certain species of dinoflagellates flourish. They are so abundant that the water becomes discolored and takes on a red hue.22. What are the two primary factors that control biologic productivity in the surface oceans? Nutrients and sunlight 23. What influences ocean colors? It depends on the amount of suspended solids including photosynthetic organisms24. What are the 3 basic categories of organisms that exist within an ecosystem in terms of energy and matter transfer? Producers, consumers and decomposers25. The use of specialized structures to filter water for food is called what? Suspension feeding26. What is the gross ecological efficiency? The energy passed to the next higher trophic level divided by the energy received from the trophic level below27. What is the term used to describe a sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred? Food chain28. What is a food web? The feeding relationships between all organisms in an ecosystem29. What is a biomass pyramid? At successively higher trophic levels, the number of individuals and total biomass decreases30. What is incidental catch or bycatch? The unintentional or accidental catch of non-targeted marine organisms by fishers31. What is a standing stock? The total mass of a population present in an ecosystem at a given time32. What is the term used to refer to the fish caught from the ocean by commercial fishers? Fisheries33. Explain maximum sustainable yield The maximum biomass that can be removed from a fishery without depleting the standing stock34. What is the purpose of a fish’s swim bladder? Enables the fish to achieve neutral buoyancy35. What strategies or methods help an organism float? A, B and C help36. What group of animals makes up the majority of the ocean’s zooplankton biomass? Copepods37. Which of the following characteristics are representative of a fish that lives a cruising lifestyle? A and B38. On average, how fast can a fish swim if its body length is 1 meter? Up to 3 meters per second39. Schooling behavior is thought to offer fish several advantages. Which one of the following is NOT an advantage of schooling? The appearance of many fish may confuse an attacking predator40. Why is the ability to bioluminescence beneficial? All of the above41. Most shallow water corals have dinoflagellates living in their structures. These dinoflagellates carry out photosynthesis providing nutrition for the coral, while the coral provides protection for the dinoflagellate. This is an example of: Mutualism42. Why do marine mammals look and behave similar to fish? They both have adapted for moving efficiently in water43. Which of the following characteristics are found in marine animals? All A, B and C44. Which of the following characteristics are found in seals? A and B only45. Why do baleen whales, such as the blue whale, eat small creatures such as krill? Krill are highly abundant because they are near the bottom of the food web and so there is more biomass to support large animals46. Which is NOT an adaptation that marine mammals have that allow for deep diving? They can acquire oxygen dissolved in the water 47. Toothed whales have an organ called the “melon”, what is it and what is it used for? It is a sensory organ used to focus sound for communication and echo-location48. Why does the distribution of benthic organisms match the distribution of surface productivity? Benthic organisms depend on the food supply from surface waters, so if productivity is high then more food reaches them49. What are some common adaptations for organisms that live in rocky shores? All of the above50. How does

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