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FSU OCE 1001 - QUIZ 1

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QUIZ 1:1. Why is quartz one of the most abundant constituents of lithogenous sediments? •2. What is the Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD)? • The depth in the ocean where carbonate dissolution equals carbonate supply3. Why are gas hydrate deposits abundant on submarine continental margins? • Organic marine sediments provide natural gas in which pressure is high and temperature is low.4. Why are the deep ocean basins covered with red clay deposits? • Clay dominates because of the near absence of lithogenous and bio genic particles.5. On the whole, what is the most important mechanism of transporting continental-margin lithogenous sediments? • Flowing water6. You are on a research cruise and you leave Japan, heading east. At about 1500 kilometers east of Japan you encounter a large volcanic plateau (Shatsky Rise) that is covered with sediments. You lower a piston core to sample the sediments and the wire indicator says 2500 meters of water depth. What kind of sediment will the core likely contain? • Carbonate ooze7. Most biogenic sediments consist of tiny shells called microfossils that are made of what two substances? • CaC03 and Si028. How are oozes different from abyssal clays? • Oozes are at least 30% biogeneous test material while abyssal clays are at least 70% fine, clay sized particles from the continent.9. Why are gas hydrates important? • 50 sites world wide contain extensive gas hydrate deposits on the sea floor; this could be huge energy source in the future.QUIZ 2:1. Many of the unique properties of water, such as cohesion and its reputation as a universal solvent, come from its atomic structure. What causes these properties? • Water molecules are electrically polarized2. What is the unit that is equivalent to raising the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade? • Calorie3. Why does ocean temperature change little from day to night? • High heat capacity absorbs solar energy quickly and releases it slowly4. What does the principle of constant proportions tell us? • No matter the salinity of ocean water, the ratios of major dissolved ions remains the same5. How does the latent heat of evaporation (and its equivalent, the latent heat of condensation) moderate climate? • By absorbing energy on evaporation and releasing it on condensation, it keeps water cool when the air is hot, and warm when the air is cool6. Hydrothermal vents are considered both a source and sink for ocean salts. How can one factor both add and take away salt?• As water interacts with hot rocks7. How does water have such strong surface tension? • Hydrogen bonds form between adjacent molecules due to water’s polarity, thus giving it strong surface tension8. Why are lakes like the Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake so buoyant? • The water is hypersaline; it has a high amount of dissolved solids, making it extremely dense and buoyant9. Water in the ocean combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak acid called carbonic acid. But the ocean’s pH is 8.1 on average, which is slightly basic. How is this so? • There is a natural buffer system10. What processes decrease local salinity in the ocean? • Precipitation, River runoff, Sea ice melting, Icebergs meltingQUIZ 3:1. What causes most places on Earth to have seasons? • The spin axis is tilted 23.5° to the plane of the Earth’s orbit, causing solar radiation to vary in angle as the Earth revolves around the Sun 2. If you travel by airplane from New York to Paris (approximately east to west across the Atlantic Ocean), which way do you have to steer the airplane to arrive in at the Paris airport? • Slightly north of a direct line between airports 3. What causes the greenhouse effect? (Ch. 6, Section “Composition of the Atmosphere”)• Sunlight is absorbed by the Earth’s surface, reradiated as infrared energy, and absorbed by atmospheric gases4. A non-rotating Earth would have hemispheric air circulation cells (Figure 6.7) but because of the Coriolis effect, there are three cells in each hemisphere (Figure 6.10). Suppose Earth rotated faster; what would happen to the three wind belts? • More wind belts5. Why does the sun heat up the Earth unvevenly? (Ch. 6, Section “Distribution of Solar Energy”)• the tilt of Earth’s rotational axisQUIZ 4:1. Why is ocean climate (and the entirety of Earth for that matter) divided into latitude parallel zones that become progressively colder from equator to pole? • The average solar radiation (sunlight) striking the surface declines from equator to poles 2. Why is Florida in a tropical climate while Baja California, at the same latitude, is temperate?• Ocean currents bring warm water up from the tropics to Florida but down from northern latitudes to Baja3. Describe the difference between sea ice and icebergs, including how they both are formed? • Sea ice – forms directly from freezing sea water on ocean surface. • Icebergs—pieces of a land-based glacier that break away from that glacier. 4. Tropical storms are categorized based on what criteria? • sustained wind speed5. What conditions lead to the formation of tropical cyclones? • Tropical Depression: < 61 mph• Tropical Storm: 61-120 mph• Tropical Cyclone: > 120 mphQUIZ 5:1. How can oceanographers measure surface currents from space?• Ekman transport/current motion cause the ocean current to budge and the departure from normal sea level can be measured.2. The Ekman spiral affects the direction of near surface water movement. If you lowered a current measuring device over the side of a ship in the northern hemisphere, what would you observe? • As the instrument descended, the current direction would move progressively to the right of the wind, until it actually was going in the opposite direction, and at greater depth it would move to the left 3. What causes downwelling? • Convergence of surface currents4. What causes upwelling? • Upwelling occurs when the wind blows towards the equator. Wind blows and causes the water to blow towards the equator. The force of the wind makes the water turn west wards, away from the cost.5. What is a western boundary current and how does it form? • As currents flow west under the trade winds, they strike continental barriers. The currents are then deflected mostly northward (southward) in the northern (southern) hemisphere • Turn away from equator because of the Coriolis effect 6. How does an equatorial


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