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FSU OCE 1001 - EXAM 4

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OCEANOGRAPHY EXAM 41. What are the 3 domains of life? (Ch. 12, Section “The Three Domains of Life”)a. Archae, Bacteria, Eukarya2. What marine organism represents the vast majority of the ocean’s biomass? (Ch. 12, Section “How Are Marine Organisms Classified?”)a. Planktonb. Sea cucumbersc. Shrimpd. Fishe. Crustaceans3. Plankton are organisms that float. Why is a copepod, which can swim and propel itself through the water, classified as plankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”)a. It lives at the surface of the ocean where plankton liveb. It was classified as a plankton before it was known that copepods are swimmersc. It has a swim bladder that keeps it from sinking, so it is a floaterd. It spends part of its life floating and part swimming, so it is classified as plankton because of the floating parte. Because of its small size, it cannot swim very fast or very far, so its location is determined by currents4. Organisms that can photosynthesize and produce their own food are called what? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”)a. Phytoplankton5. Organisms that only spend part of their life cycle as plankton are referred to as what? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”)a. Meroplankton6. What are nektobenthos? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthos”)a. Organisms that live on the bottom of the seafloor, but swim or crawl through the water above the seafloor7. What is the primary factor that limits life on the deep-ocean floor? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthos”)a. Food Supply8. Of Earth’s total number of species, why are the fewest in the marine pelagic realm? (Ch. 12, Section “How Many Marine Species Exist?”)a. There is more area on land for different speciesb. Uniform conditions in the pelagic realm make fewer specialized environments for organism adaptation as different speciesc. Organisms need a hard substrate (either land or sea bottom) in order to evolve into different speciesd. Evolution of differing species is triggered by extinction, but extinction is rare in the pelagic environmente. The pelagic realm contains the photic zone, and solar radiation in the photic zone suppresses the number of new species that evolve9. Why is the surface area to volume ratio important for phytoplankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”)a. A larger ratio provides higher resistance to sinking and less energy used to stay afloat.10. Why do most fish and marine mammals have the same torpedo-like, streamlined shape? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”)a. A streamlined shape presents a greater surface area to volume ratio, which allows easier regulation of internal heatb. If you are going to move through a substance, like water, it is necessary to have a head and eyes at one end and a tail at the otherc. Streamlining looks better to the opposite sex, so it leads to greater reproductiond. The streamlined shape minimizes energy expended to move through the watere. They can swim faster with streamlined shapes11. Most fresh water fish are hypertonic, meaning their body cells contain more salt than the surrounding water. Since osmosis should push water into their cells, why don’t they explode? (Ch. 12, Section “Salinity”)a. They urinate a lot, so the water does not build upb. They don’t drink any water, since they get so much from osmosisc. Their cells have adapted to absorb saltd. They have adapted to live with high osmotic pressuree. All of the above12. What is the primary difference between pelagic environment zones below the photic zone? (Ch. 12, Section “What Are Living Things, and How Are They Classified?”)a. Increasing pressure with increasing depthb. Decreasing oxygen with increasing depthc. Decreasing light with increasing depthd. Increase in salinity with decreasing temperaturee. Decreasing food abundance with increasing depth13. What are the reasons the ocean has a smaller daily, seasonal, and annual temperature range than that experienced on land? (Ch. 12, Section “Temperature”)a. Water has higher heat capacity b. Ocean warming is reduced by evaporation c. Solar radiation penetrates deeply into the ocean layers d. Ocean mixing allows heat from one are to be transported to other arease. All of the above14. What is the definition of eurythermal? (Ch. 12, Section “Temperature”)a. Organisms can tolerate large changes in temperature, typically live in coastal waters15. Freshwater fish are isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic relative to their environment? (Ch. 12, Section “Salinity”)a. Hypertonic16. How does water pressure change with depth? (Ch. 12, Section “Pressure”)a. Increases about 1 atmosphere (1 kg/cm2) with every 10 meters (33 feet) deeper17. What is the euphotic zone? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)a. The zone where enough light exists to support photosynthesis18. What are the 4 biozones of the oceanic province? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)a. Epipelagic, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, Abyssopelagic19. What is the neritic province? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)a. The zone with water depth < 200 meters deep20. What is the deepest zone of the suboceanic province? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthic Environment”)a. BAH: Bathyal, Abyssal, Hadal *ORDER OF DEPTH21. Biological oceanographers discuss about biomass frequently. Just what is biomass? (Ch. 13, Section “What is Primary Productivity?”a. The amount of organisms produced in a given timeb. The total weight of protoplasm contained in a given organismc. The total mass of all organisms of a given classd. The total number of organisms within a given classe. The total number of organisms within a given class divided by the total weight of those organisms22. What is the difference between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity? (Ch. 13, Section “What Kind of Photosynthetic Marine Organisms Exist?”)a. Net productivity is the amount of organic material from photosynthesizers that can be caught in a netb. Gross productivity is the amount of organic carbon created by photosynthesis per unit of time and net productivity is the gross minus the amount of organic carbon consumed by the photosynthesizersc. Gross productivity is the total amount of organic carbon produced during a day, but net productivity is the amount left over after predation by grazing organismsd. Gross productivity is the amount of organic matter created in a unit time and net


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