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FSU OCE 1001 - Test 3 Study Guide

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What are the 3 domains of life? -Eukaraya, archea and bacteriaWhat marine organism represents the vast majority of the ocean’s biomass? -PlanktonPlankton are organisms that float. Why is a copepod, which can swim and propel itself through the water, classified as plankton? -Because of its small size, it cannot swim very fast or very far, so its location is determined by currentsOrganisms that can photosynthesize and produce their own food are called what? -autotrophicOrganisms that only spend part of their life cycle as plankton are referred to as what? -MeroplanktonWhat are nektobenthos? -Organisms that live on the bottom but can swim or crawl through the waterWhat is the primary factor that limits life on the deep-ocean floor? -Sparse food supplyOf Earth’s total number of species, why are the fewest in the marine pelagic realm? -Uniform conditions in the pelanic reformWhy is the surface area to volume ratio important for phytoplankton? -A larger ratio provides higher resistance to sinking and less energy to stay afloatWhy do most fish and marine mammals have the same torpedo-like, streamlined shape? -The streamlined shape minimizes the energy expended to move through the waterMost fresh water fish are hypertonic, meaning their body cells contain more salt than the surrounding water. Since osmosis should push water into their cells, why don’t they explode? -They urinate a lot, so the water does not build up, They don’t drink any water since they get so much from osmosis, their cells have adapted to absorb salt, they have adapted to live with high osmotic pressure (ALL OF THE ABOVE)What is the primary difference between pelagic environment zones below the photic zone? -Increasing pressure with increasing depthWhat are the reasons the ocean has a smaller daily, seasonal, and annual temperature range than that experienced on land? -(ALL OF THE ABOVE)What is the definition of eurythermal?-Organisms that can tolerate large changes in temperature Freshwater fish are isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic relative to their environment? -HypertonicHow does water pressure change with depth? -Pressure increases with depthWhat is the euphotic zone? -The zone where there is enough light to support photosynthesisWhat are the 4 biozones of the oceanic province? -1) epipelagic 2) mesopelagic 3) bathypelagic 4) abyssopelagicWhat is the neritic province? -The zone with water depths less than 200 MWhat is the deepest zone of the suboceanic province? -The hadal zoneBiological oceanographers discuss about biomass frequently. Just what is biomass? -The total mass of all organisms of a given classWhat is the difference between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity? -gross productivity is the amount of organic carbon created by photosynthesis per unit of time and net productivity is the gross minus the amount of organic carbon consumed by the photosynthesizers.What are the two primary factors that control biologic productivity in the surface oceans? -Sunlight and nutrientsWhat is the biological pump? -The removal of organic matter and nutrients from surface water to deep water through the sinking of dead surface dwelling organisms.Why is upwelling such an important factor in creating areas of high biologic productivity? -Upwelling brings nutrient rich deep water to the surface where productivity is limited by the availability of nutrientsWhy are sessile, plant-like macroalgae (i.e., those attached to the ocean bottom) only found in littoral and sub-littoral environments? -They require lightGiven what you know about surface productivity, where do you think that sunlight penetrates deepest into the ocean? -Middle gyreIn photosynthesis, what two things must come together with light energy input to produce sugar and oxygen? -water & CO2What influences ocean color? -The level of turbidity as a result of runoff, the level of photosynthetic pigment which has positive correlation with biological production (Both A & B)What is responsible for the red tide phenomenon? -Red tide occurs in patches of water where certain species of dinoflagellates flourish. They are so abundant that the water becomes discolored and takes a red hue.What are the 3 basic categories of organism that exist within an ecosystem? -producers, consumers and decomposersWhat is suspension feeding? -The use of specialized structure to filter water for food.What is the gross ecological efficiency? -The ratio of energy passed onto the next higher trophic level divided by the energy received from the trophic level below.What is a food chain? -Sequence of organisms through which energy is transferredWhat is a food web?-A feeding relationship between all organisms in an ecosystem What is a biomass pyramid? -The number of individuals and total biomass decrease at successive trophic levelsWhat is meant by the term fisheries?-Fish caught from the ocean by commercial fishersWhat is a standing stock? -The mass present in an ecosystem at a given time.Explain maximum sustainable yield. -The maximum fishery biomass that can be removed yearly and still be sustained by the fishery ecosystem.What is incidental catch or bycatch? -Includes any marine organisms that are caught incidentally by fishers seeking commercial species.What strategies or methods help an organism float? -Having many appendages to create drag, having a soft low density body, having a swim bladder, having a gas chamber inside a shellWhat are the common characteristics or adaptations for a fish that lives a cruising lifestyle? -A streamlined torpedo shaped body, a preponderance of red muscle tissue, a higher body temp, the ability to generate short bursts of high speed.What advantages does schooling behavior offer? -Being together reduces the probability of running into a predator fish, the school may appear as a larger more dangerous organism to a predator, the appearance of many fish may confuse an attacking predatorWhat are some of the common adaptations for deep-water nekton? -Large eyes, bioluminescence, ability to eat large infrequent meals, dark colorationWhat is the purpose of a fish’s swim bladder? -enables the fish to achieve neutral buoyancyWhat is a general rule to help determine how fast a given fish can swim? -the bigger the fish, the faster it can probably swim.Why is the ability to bioluminescence beneficial? -food may be found even in the darkest parts of the ocean or at night, signals may be sent out to communicate an interest in mating, the

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