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FSU OCE 1001 - Study Guide

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1. The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is…?= Nitrogen2. How and why does temperature vary with altitude within the troposhphere?= temperature decreases as you go higher.3. Where is the solar radiation per unit area the greatest?= at the 90 degree marker on earth4. The gain and losses of solar energy on earth are known as earths’s…= heat budget5. Which of the following protects the earth’s surface from ultraviolet radiation?= ozone6. Earth’s surface winds are caused by air moving from a region of ______ to a region of _____.=high pressure; low pressure7. Which of the following is considered a greenhouse gas?= carbon dioxide8. How does the earth’s rotation effect the wind?= modifies its direction9. Wind belts that slow from east to west over most of the areas between 30 degrees North and 30degrees South are called?=north west10. The coriolis effect arises primarily from the ____.=rotation of earth around its axis11. The coriolis effect=- Deflects to the right in the northern hemisphere- Deflects to the left in the southern hemisphere- Has no effect at equator12. A rapid change in temperature with depth is called a:= thermocline13. The isothermal surface layer maintained by turbulence caused by waves and wind is called what?= mixed layer14. Which of the following will increase the density of water?=increase salinity; decrease salinity15. Differences in water temperature and salinity causes differences in water density and can set water masses in motion. What is this called?= thermocline circulation16. What term refers to a water layer with constant density?= isopycnal17. What is the process that transports oxygen rich surface water to depth?= downwelling18. What is a water mass?= a large body of water with similar values of both salinity and temperature19. In the northern hemisphere what will be the mean direction and flow of the water columns due to Ekman transport?=90 degrees to the right20. In the southern hemisphere, what will be the direction of the surface water due to this wind?=45 degrees to the left21. What drives and shapes the major ocean gyres?=trade winds, westerlies, coriolis effect, land mass22. Currents are more intense on the ____ side of the north pacific and north atlantic oceans.= western23. A zone of surface divergence is an area of ____ and _____ biological productivity.=upwelling; high24. Which current flows south along the west coast of the U.S?= California25. How does the Antarctic circumpolar current flow all the way around Antarctica?= there are no land masses to block its path26. Wind-driven surface currents move at a speed that is _____ the average driving wind speed.= one-one hundredth27. What measurements are necessary to define a current?= speed, direction28. Eddies:= persist for long periods of time, mix water, lose energy to turbulence and friction, stir up bottom sediments29. Where does water sink and enter the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt?= north atlantic, Antarctic30. What is it called when surface waters are driven together?= convergence31. What instrument can be used to measure currents?= Doppler meter, drift bottles, current meters32. How can you calculate wavespeed?= wavelength/ period33. What are deep-water waves?= where the depth is greater than the wave base34. The speed of a shallow water wave depends on what?= depth35. If you were a submarine commander and wanted to go deep enough that your ship would not feel the effect of a storm wave that has 200 meter wavelength, how deep would you have to dive?= at least 100 meters36. A group of waves is propagated at a speed that is _____ the speed of individual waves in deep water?= one-half37. The average energy of a wave is related to the square of its____.= height38. Wave height of wind generated waves depends on…= windspeed and direction, fetch (extend/ size of region)39. A water wave reaches an unstable breaking point when the steepness ratio, H/L, reaches_____.= 1:740. What happens when waves approach each other in phase?= the waves will combine resulting in a bigger wave41. Why do breakers form as waves approach shallow water?= orbital motion is slowed and compressed42. Wave refraction is explained by which of the following:= the bending of waves in the shallow water43. Water protected from direct wave influence behind a breakwater can be placed in motion by wave______.= diffraction44. Wave refraction results in=- Wave energy focusing on headlands- Wave energy decreasing in bays45. What kind of breaker will form in a steep beach slope?= plunger46. Standing waves that occur in natural busing are called what?= seiches47. Why do tsunami waves always behave as shallow water waves?= because nowhere is it deep enough for it to be a shallow water wave48. Tsunamis can result from which of the following?= earthquakes, submarine landslides, large meteor impacts, volcanic eruptions49. Waves occurring at the interference between water layers of different density such as seawater and fresh water are called____=internal waves50. In a standing wave, the positions where there is maximum vertical motion are called___.= antinodes51. If the earth were made up of only water, where would you expect to find the strongest tidal forces?= directly beneath and opposite the moon52. What happens to a tide when the moon and sun are on the same side of earth?= you get a spring tide53. If a point on the coast experiences a semidiurnal tide, what does the daily tide record show?= 2 high, 2 low, but they are the same


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