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FSU OCE 1001 - Oceanography Review for Exam 2

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Oceanography Review for Exam 2 – Answer Guide1. Biological oceanography, geological oceanography, chemical oceanography, and physical oceanography2. Wind, gravitational forces of the moon and sun, and underwater land movements3. Tides4. Tsunamis5. The water surface at sea is chaotic6. When air moves over still water7. The water surface is rougher8. No, the particles just go around in circles9. The diameter of each circle decreases rapidly with increased depth10. At depths greater than ½ wave length11. In the direction of wavepropogation; opposite to the direction of wavepropogation12. The orbits get squished by the bottom and become ellipses13. Waves that occur in water deeper than half a wavelength14. Wave speed increases with increasing wavelength15. Waves that occur in water shallower than 1/20th of a wavelength16. Shallow water waves17. The shallower the water, the slower the waves travel18. The bending of waves toward regions where they go slower 19. Shallower water20. In groups 21. ½ phase velocity22. 8-1023. Tens of thousands24. Repeating pattern of relatively large waves coming into shore in succession, followed by a series of relatively small waves in succession25. The gradual spreading and sorting of waves according to wavelength26. Well sorted uniform waves27. We can tell how far the wave-generating storm center was from the coast by how far the long waves are ahead of the short ones28. Longshore bars29. Shallower regions offshore30. They form during heavy wave activity when the waves transport the sand from the beach to the offshore bars31. The bars cause the water to be shallow offshore so the big waves break and loose energy before they can get to the beach and remove the sand32. Spilling breakers, plunging breakers, collapsing breaker, surging breaker, andgiant waves.33. Gradual bottom slope34. Waves break slowly with the crest spilling down the face of the wave a little at a time over a long distance35. The slope at the bottom is greater36. Front of wave slows down fast enough that the crest gets ahead of it and plunges down toward the base of the wave. Crest curls over a large pocket of air.37. The slope of the bottom is even greater than that of the plunging breaker38. Breaking occurs over the lower half of the wave; minimal air pocket39. Wave slides up and down the beach with little or no bubble production40. In the southern Ocean and the Pacific Ocean41. The distance over which the wind blows42. Big43. 1933, in the North Pacific44. 34 meteres high with a peiod of 14.8 seconds 45. Movement of the earth46. 4 km47. Wavelength=200km48. 1 m or less high49. 450 mph50. 15 minutes51. Shallow water waves52. Refraction53. Wavelength decreases and height increase54. The Krakatau55. December 26, 200456. March 11, 201157. Broken waves that wash up onto the beach58. Backwash59. Because the waves are unbroken and water particles have effectively no net displacement60. Sand bars61. Narrow fast seaward currents perpendicular to the shore62. During heavy wave activity63. Swim a few strokes sideways64. By foam or debris they carry with them from the shore65. Because the river of sand is drained off down the canyon66. The apparent deflection of moving air relative to the earth’s surface67. G.G. de Coriolis who mathematically solved the problem of deflection when motion is referred to a rotating body68. The burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the increase in human population. 69. By 25%70. A decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide in the spring and summer and an increase in fall and winter (fewer plant leaves)71. 60%72. Methane73. 0.6 degrees C74. On land75. 1.7 mm76. Thermal expansion of the ocean due to heating.77. The melting of ice originating on land.78. Greenland and Antarctica79. 2.5 mm80. Land sinking81. Sharp’s Island, Maryland82. Gravity waves and Capillary waves83. Because long wavelength deep water waves travel faster than short wavelength deep water waves84. Swash is small and soaks in, returning through the beach rather than over it85. Rocky in winter and sandy in summer because the weather is stormy in winter and the waves tend to be bigger than in the summer. 86. Remove it87. Beaches will disappear because rivers and streams supply sand to the beaches88. Centrifugal force89. Because of the law of motion that states a particle in motion will move in a straight line until acted upon by another force90. Only when motion is judged against a rotating frame of reference91. The balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force92. Western boundary currents and Antarctic circumpolar currents93. The Gulf Stream94. Because its water has come from near the equator and has been at the surface for some timeFill in the blank1. ½ 2. short, long, absorbed, heats. 3. northern, southern4. Force5. Geostrophic6. Tidal sea level + ‘residual’Matching – types of sand1. E2. C3. B4. D5. ATrue/False1. T2. F3. T4. F5. F6. T7. T8. TQuestions in relation to The Day After Tomorrow1. A huge piece of ice breaks off of Antarctica and the hero is nearly killed2. Yes, it is based on the break up of the real-life Larsen B ice shelf. 3. Ice that extends out from the land over the sea4. 200 m thick and had been stable for about the last 12,000 years. 5. The Antarctic Peninsula has warmed by about .5 C per decade, much faster than mean global warming. 6. Pools of water forming during 24 hours of summer sunshine. This water flowed into cracks and then a multitude of wedges levered the shelf apart.7. No8. No. Air at the surface is under a lot more pressure than air from ten miles up. Air under increased pressure is warmer. So if a bit of air descended to the surface from ten miles above the surface it would actually warm up quite a bit. Matching - Currents1. B 2. A 3. B 4. A5. B6.


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