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FSU OCE 1001 - Study Guide

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Oceanography Test Ch.12-16Ch. 12 A• What are the 3 domains of life? (Ch. 12, Section “The Three Domains of Life”)Bacteria, Archea, Eukaria• What marine organism represents the vast majority of the ocean’s biomass? (Ch. 12, Section “How Are Marine Organisms Classified?”)Plankton• Plankton are organisms that float. Why is a copepod, which can swim and propel itself through the water, classified as plankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”)Heterotrophic (zooplankton), Holoplankton, MicroplanktonPlankton- because of its small size it cannot swim fast or far, so location determined by currents.• Organisms that can photosynthesize and produce their own food are called what? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”)autotrophic• Organisms that only spend part of their life cycle as plankton are referred to as what? (Ch. 12, Section “Plankton”)meroplankton• What are nektobenthos? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthos”)Organisms that live on the bottom but can crawl through the water.• What is the primary factor that limits life on the deep-ocean floor? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthos”)Limited food supply• Of Earth’s total number of species, why are the fewest in the marine pelagic realm? (Ch. 12, Section “How Many Marine Species Exist?”)Uniform conditions in the pelagic realm make fewer specialized environments.• Why is the surface area to volume ratio important for phytoplankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”)Larger ratio provides higher resistance to sinking and less energy to stay afloat.• Why do most fish and marine mammals have the same torpedo-like, streamlined shape? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”)The streamlined shape minimizes the energy expended to move through the water.Ch.12 B• Most fresh water fish are hypertonic, meaning their body cells contain more salt than the surrounding water. Since osmosis should push water into their cells, why don’t they explode? (Ch. 12, Section “Salinity”)Do not drink water, cells absorb salt, secrete large volume of dilute urine• What is the primary difference between pelagic environment zones below the photic zone? (Ch. 12, Section “What Are Living Things, and How Are They Classified?”)Increasing pressure with increasing depth• What are the reasons the ocean has a smaller daily, seasonal, and annual temperature range than that experienced on land? (Ch. 12, Section “Temperature”)More evaporationTransparency and water flow distribute heatCan hold more heat and takes more heat to change temp.All of the above• What is the definition of eurythermal? (Ch. 12, Section “Temperature”)Organisms that can tolerate large changes in temperature• Freshwater fish are isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic relative to their environment? (Ch. 12, Section “Salinity”)Hypertonic• How does water pressure change with depth? (Ch. 12, Section “Pressure”)Pressure increases with depth• What is the euphotic zone? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)The zone where there is enough light to support photosynthesis• What are the 4 biozones of the oceanic province? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)Epipelagic, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, Abyssopelagic• What is the neritic province? (Ch. 12, Section “What are the main divisions of the marine environment?”)The zone with water depths less than 200 meters• What is the deepest zone of the suboceanic province? (Ch. 12, Section “Benthic Environment”)Hadal zoneCh. 13 A• Biological oceanographers discuss about biomass frequently. Just what is biomass? (Ch. 13, Section “What is Primary Productivity?”The total mass of all organisms of a given class• What is the difference between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity? (Ch. 13, Section “What Kind of Photosynthetic Marine Organisms Exist?”)Gross productivity is the amount of organic carbon created by photosynthesis per unit of time and net productivity is the gross minus the amount of organic carbon consumed by the photosynthesizers.• What are the two primary factors that control biologic productivity in the surface oceans? (Ch. 13, Section “Factors Affecting Primary Productivity”)Nutrients and sunlight• What is the biological pump? (Ch. 13, Section “How Does Regional Productivity Vary?”)The removal of organic matter and nutrients from surface water to deep water through the sinking of dead surface dwelling organisms.• Why is upwelling such an important factor in creating areas of high biologic productivity? (Ch. 13, Section “How Does Regional Productivity Vary?”)Upwelling brings nutrient rich deep water to the surface where productivity is limited by the availability of nutrients.• Why are sessile, plant-like macroalgae (i.e., those attached to the ocean bottom) only found in littoral and sub-littoral environments? (Ch. 13, Sections 13.2, Section “Macroscopic (Large) Algae”)They require light to reach the ocean bottom, which only occurs in these two zones.• Given what you know about surface productivity, where do you think that sunlight penetrates deepest into the ocean? (Ch. 13, Figure 13.6)Middle gyre• In photosynthesis, what two things must come together with light energy input to produce sugar and oxygen? (Ch. 13, Section “What Is Primary Productivity?”)Water and CO2• What influences ocean color? (Ch. 13, Section “Light Transmission in Ocean Water”)The level of turbidity as a result of runoff, the level of photosynthetic pigment, which has a positive correlation with biological productionD) The amount of suspended sediments and photosynthetic organisms• What is responsible for the red tide phenomenon? (Ch. 13, Section “Microscopic (Small) Algae”)Red tide occurs in patches of water where certain species of dinoflagellates flourish.Ch.13 B• What are the 3 basic categories of organism that exist within an ecosystem? (Section 13.4 How are energy and nutrients passed along in marine ecosystems?)Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers• What is suspension feeding? (Section 13.5 What Oceanic Feeding Relationships Exist?)The use of specialized structure to filter water for food• What is the gross ecological efficiency? (Section 13.5 What Oceanic Feeding Relationships Exist?)The energy passed on to the next higher trophic level divided by the energy received from the trophic level below• What is a food chain? (Section 13.5 What


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