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FSU INR 3003 - Notes

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Classical Realismfocuses on power; put power heavily on leader of state and human nature being selfish and humans are aggressiveHobbean Ideal (Thomas Hobbes) – action of leader reflects on the statesOverall focus on state systemHans Morgenthau – leader of classical realismWar a result of Individuals that were flawed, created flawed systems and governmentsHow is it fixed?Increase communicationFocus on spread of democracyRespect and recognize sovereignty of other statesRealists thought war was natural and inevitable; they will always happenNeo-RealismStates #1 concern should be security so it can ensure survivalFocus on the structure of international system not the individual  how states are alignedStructural realismBecause there is no global governmental authority, states are going to be in a competition with each otherAssumptions of Neo-Realism:States are unitary actors – state acts as individual playerActions designed to guarantee its securityBased on own rational self interestConcerned primarily on themselvesStates seek securityWhether democracy or authoritarian regime the goal is survivalMay do so by increasing their security/power and possibly scaring their neighborsHow to avoid conflict?Seek allies – protect them and build strengthBandwagoning – small states join more powerful larger statesBalancing - balance of powers, not one side larger than the otherPolarity Uni-Polarity – one state has the most power, militarily, economically and culturallyBi-polarity – two powerful players one on one side one on the otherseen as the most secure by the realistsMulti-Polarity- when you have multiple powerful players in a systemRealists predict this is where we are headedCan states work together and cooperate?Cant force a state to cooperateZero-sum games – one states gains result in another state’s lossSecurity Dilemma – Prisoner’s Dilemma (game theory)WWIGermany and Security DilemmaIf its weak it can be absorbed by neighboring stateIf its strong it can absorb other statesOtton von Bismarckchief factitioner of realpolitikensure Germany would be strongTriple Entence – France, UK, RussiaCentral Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman EmpireThere is balance and therefore equilibriumLess chance of warBecause of alliance there is no guarantee of survival because every power is too evenly balancedBalance of powers and reasons for its demisePower transitionBritain declining and Germany risingCould have been destabilizing factor and catalystMaybe not? Because the war wasn’t between them – Britain reluctant to go into warPreventative WarRussia rising (1905 – Germany hit apex of power – stronger than Russia, but Russia vast land growing quickly)if Russia became more powerful than Germany and larger it could be a problemInterwar to WWIIBalance VERY UNSTABLEGerman empire fell, Austria-Hungary fell, Ottoman Empire fell, and Russian Empire fellPyrrhic Victory – when you have lost more than you have gainedFrance – war fought here, land destroyed, lots of men deadBritain – another nail in coffin as it was decliningUS- came in later and loss not as great but in immediate years after we went home and became isolationist (removed from European politics) and later depressionPower that could defend others and keep power balanced retracts  equilibrium lost, not clear the relative power of each state from anotherBalance of powerDestabilizing multi-polar configuration of power after WWI (1919)No major power or vulnerableLeague of NationsWoodrow Wilson – international organizationReduce the possibility of war by communicating and seeking cooperation with other states and recognizing sovereignty and working together for collective securityLacked military powerCould impose sanctions under same condition that powers had to come together to impose themUS not part of League of Nations – many argue if they would have been it would have been the power that made it workToo unbalanced and weak, when league was challenged it didn’t have enough to fight backChallengesJapan (Manchukuo) and ItalyJapan delegates walked out of League of NationsMussolini in power wanted to take EthiopiaLeague agreed to impose sanctions – incl. Rubber and Tin and armsDidn’t include oil and was one thing that could’ve crippled Italy’s effort. Why?Mussolini was threatening war – scared that too much action would bring him and Hitler to form allianceBritain and France went to recognize their territory taken as legitimateAppeasementBritain and France concerned – they had reason, Germany no longer abiding by rules of treaty of VersaillesSeptember, 1938 – Munich conference (Britain and France, Italy & Germany)Act of Appeasement from British and French - one side gives something to other to try and bring about peaceHitler wants Sudetenland and why… they say ok but ask to promise not to go further; Hitler agreesMarch, 1939 – Germans take CzechoslovakiaGermany could not be trusted and working together was not going to succeed – B & F knew they needed to start preparingNazi Germany as Revisionist StateMearsheimer’s viewpointWar not surprising because of multi-polar situation and instabilityGermany rising and nobody to keep check on them – created security dilemma for everyone and Germans had to be concerned because states around them would try to align against them to counterbalanceAct aggressively to ensure survivalGermans were looking for more than security they wanted full powerGoal is to be sole power, and as revisionist state they think balance of power isn’t stableThe Cold War EruptsFeb 1945 (the Big 3) get together and once again at Potsdam (Attlee, Truman & Stalin)Topic – Post-war EuropeEvery country would control territory they had won over until permanent solution would be decided onGermany divided temporarily and jointly administered by 4 powers (US, UK, France, Russia)Berlin also divided and jointly administeredUS wanted to spread Democracy and bring it to western Order, build a friend of GermanyRussians wanted spread of communism into EuropeEast Central Europe = Soviet SatellitesUS demanded elections be heldStalin complied – after all opposition party leaders arrestedCommunist leaders elected (on their own)Linked to MoscowSeries of satellite states – controlled by Moscow even though they have own gov’tRelationship between US & USSR broke downWhy these 2 powers?  after WWII they were the major powers (worlds greatest military/industrial/economic


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