New version page

FSU INR 3003 - Introduction to Realism

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-26-27-28 out of 28 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 28 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 28 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 28 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 28 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 28 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 28 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Introduction to International AffairsIntroduction to RealismI. Beginning of International Relations in the United Statesa. Began in the time period of the two world wars (point of origin)i. WWI1. 15 million deathsii. WWII1. 40-75 million deaths (depending on inclusion of civilian deaths)b. Unlike any other wars that had occurred beforei. How did this happen? (especially in the West, home of Enlightenment ideals)1. Freedom, equality, sovereignty of other states, individual rightsc. How do major power wars happen?i. How are they prevented?II. How the international system worksa. How different actors think and actb. Help ensure peacec. Two theoriesi. Realism – dominant theory of 20th century1. Look at the past for patterns of behaviorii. Liberalism iii. Constructivism – doesn’t catch on until after the Cold Ward. Challenge to theoriesi. Doesn’t always correlate with realityii. Only educated guessesIII. What is realism?a. Emphasis on power and power structuresi. How states exert powerIV. Intellectual roots of realisma. Thucydidesb. Niccolo Machiavellic. Thomas Hobbesd. Carl von ClausewitzV. Classical Realism (Hans Morgenthau)a. Focuses on power and power structuresi. Emphasizes role of individual leaderb. Hans Morgenthaui. Father of classical realismii. Politics Among Nations (1948)iii. Heads the classical realists1. Thought they had a more realistic understanding of international workings than idealists (Woodrow Wilson/Neo-Liberals)c. A response to US Idealismi. Idealists felt imperfections of leaders and policies could be cured1. Possibility of a perfect systema. Increase communication between statesb. Recognize sovereignty of other statesc. Spreading democracy i. Lead to less conflictii. Idealists seen as naïve by Realists1. Agreed on flaws2. Disagree of ability to fix/perfecta. Didn’t see how this fit with human natured. Pursuit of power (Realpolitik)i. Power politicsii. Recognize leaders and states seek power1. Conflict when all leaders and states seeking increases in powera. Always at another state’s expenseb. Conflict part of human naturec. Always be prepared for war2. Hobbesa. Man was inherently selfish, evil, and aggressiveb. Adopted by Realistsc. Characteristics of individuals superimposed on the statei. Reflection of its leadere. Dominant until 1960s and 1970sVI. Neo-Realism (Kenneth Waltz)a. Takes emphasis off of the leaderi. System, not leaders, drive the states1. Structure creates insecurityii. Ensure survival because of threats and changesb. Aka structural realismc. Focus on security rather than poweri. Survival of the stated. Only deals with state actorsi. Less focus on international organizations1. Claim they can never be more powerful than the state2. Serve interests of/utilized by the statee. Assumptionsi. States are rational unitary actors1. States work alonea. Can’t depend on other states2. Make rational decisions about securityii. States seek security1. Only way to ensure survival (ultimate goal)iii. Anarchy1. No governing body over statesa. Must look out for themselves (self-help scenario)b. Anarchy breeds insecurityi. Lead to rash actions and selfish actions2. Hobbes’s state of naturea. Selfish desires leads to “war of all against all”3. Draws states into competition (always looking for own best interests)f. Balance of poweri. Best way to prevent warii. Think of Cold Wariii. Alliances1. Weaker states seek alliances with stronger states2. Build in a sense of protection3. Give state additional reinforcementsiv. Band-wagoning1. Smaller state seeks alliance for protection with a major power2. Stronger power then takes advantage of that alliancea. Overrun itb. Sung Dynasty (weak power militarily, strong economically)i. Conflict with Liao ii. Seek alliance with Jurchen to help defeat Liao (success)iii. Jurchen end up taking part of Sung territoryiv. Happened again with Mongolsc. 1939 Non-Aggression Pact b/t Russia and Germanyi. Russia considerably weaker than Germanyii. Germans broke the agreement (invaded Russia)v. Balancing1. Part of states natural behavior2. Realists warn against alliancesa. Don’t believe in fixed alliances (should always be fluid)b. Can draw into someone else’s wari. Compromise own securityg. Polarityi. Uni-polarity (hegemonic stability theory)1. One major power (Hegemon)2. Current configurationa. United States is Hegemon (expected to change)3. Some believe ideal situationa. Not in line with majority of Realistsii. Bi-polarity 1. Two seats of power2. Most Realists in favor of this3. Most balanceda. Most likely to have peace 4. Like the Cold War5. Two sides offset each otheriii. Multi-polarity1. Multiple seats of power2. Realists say current events are moving to a multi-polar worlda. India and China rising (and European Union)3. Conducive with more rapidly changing alliancesh. Cooperation does not guarantee securityi. Lack of enforcement (no global power)ii. Cooperation calls for compromise1. Does that breed vulnerability?i. Security dilemma – prisoner’s dilemma (Game Theory)i. Israel and Iran1. Iran building up nuclear power2. Puts Israel in security dilemmaj. Often falsely depicted as war-mongers i. Goal actually to learn how to prevent wark. Relative gains (zero-sum)i. What one gains over another/at the expense of anotherRealismI. Security dilemma – prisoner’s dilemmaa. Part of game theoryb. State’s primary interest: security and survivalc. Prisoner’s dilemma- simple way to analyze security dilemmai. Last-move scenario (only once chance to act)ii. Decision you make is best for you and yourself alone1. Realist’s version: both will confessd. Decisions are rational decisions (self-help)e. Real-life example: nuclear arms raceII. WWIIa. Europe in the 1800s: multi-polar worldi. Balance of power between Eastern and Western Europe1. Confederation of German states (only unified in 1871)a. Weak Central Europeb. Germany and the security dilemmai. Unification of Germany1. Orchestrated by Otto von Bismarcka. Ensured strength of Germany2. Either become weak (and overcome) or powerful (seen as a threat)ii. Became a strong stateiii. Neighbors had a security dilemma1. Particularly Britain and France2. Optionsa. Destroy Germany and eliminate the threat (after WWI)b. Win over the Germans (after WWII)c. Balance of power and reason for its demisei. Triple Entente (UK, France, and Russia) and Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy until 1915)1. Triple Entente surrounds Central Powers2. Create equilibrium in


View Full Document
Download Introduction to Realism
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Introduction to Realism and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Introduction to Realism 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?