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Psychology 101 Final ReviewPeople:1. John Piaget2. Lawrence Kohlberg3. Ivan Pavlov4. Harry and Margaret Harlow5. Erik Erikson6. B.F. Skinner7. Karen Horney8. Alfred Adler9. John B. Watson10. Albert Bandura11. Carl Jung12. Abraham MaslowVocabulary:1. Experimental group2. Statistical significance3. Central Nervous System (CNS)4. Endorphins5. Critical Thinking6. Frontal lobes7. Neuron8. Random assignment9. Reuptake10. Theory11. Threshold12. Control group13. Autonomic nervous system14. Myelin Sheath15. Double-blind procedure16. Placebo17. Informed consent18. Hormones19. Nerves20. Standard deviation21. Dendrites22. Corpus callosum23. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)24. Confounding variable25. Axon26. Interneurons27. Neurotransmitters28. Sensory neurons29. Habituation30. Action potential31. Longitudinal study32. Somatic nervous system33. Reticular formation34. Synapse35. Endocrine system36. Motor neurons37. Adrenal glands38. Psychophysics39. Amygdala40. Gestalt41. Medulla42. Cochlea43. Absolute threshold44. Cross-sectional study45. Cerebellum46. Pituitary glands47. Fovea48. Limbic system49. Hypothalamus50. Thalamus51. Perceptual set52. Cerebral cortex53. Glial cells54. Transduction55. Phi phenomenon56. Plasticity57. Theory of mind58. Self-concept59. Association areas60. Neurogenesis61. Kinesthesis62. Weber’s Law63. Priming64. Operant chamber65. Higher-order conditioning66. Gate-control theory67. Parallel processing68. Latent learning69. Primary reinforcer70. Signal detection theory71. Embodied cognition72. Law of effect73. Cognitive map74. Acquisition75. Vestibular sense76. Flashbulb memory77. Prosocial behavior78. Aphasia79. Mood-congruent theory80. Mirror neurons81. Subjective-well being82. Mental set83. Relative deprivation84. Sensory memory85. Lymphocytes86. Linguistic determinism87. Working memory88. Sigmund Freud89. Adaptation level phenomenon90. Long-term potential91. Collective unconscious92. Terror-management theory93. Empirically derived testConceptual Questions:1. Our two best friends have started dating and we immediately feel like we knew they were meant to be together. What psychology concept is in play here? 2. What are neurons and how do they transmit information?3. State one advantage and one disadvantage of naturalistic observation:--4. TRUE OR FALSE: Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men, which means that marriage causes men to lose their hair.5. What measures do researchers use to percent the placebo effect in experiment participants?6. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?7. How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells?8. Why are association areas so important?9. What distinguishes imprinting from attachment?10. Why is a random sample important?11. What is emerging adulthood?12. How does our nervous system differentiate between a slap and pat on the back?13. What is the difference between place and frequency theory?14. Serotonin, dopamine, and endorphins are all chemical messengers called ______________________________.15. What is the difference between associative and cognitive learning?16. Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.17. What bodily changes does your autonomic nervous system direct before and after you give an important speech?18. Give examples of animals using language and communicating.19. What are the 3 parenting types in order of decreasing strictness?20. Explain how operant conditioning woks and how it is reinforced.21. What happens in the synaptic gap?22. What is the opponent-processing theory?23. What is the course of prenatal development (a.k.a. the stages up until birth)?24. What physical changes occur during middle and late adulthood?25. How does punishment differ from negative reinforcement?26. What is the difference between bottom-up processing and top-down processing?27. TRUE OF FALSE: Our social clocks are based off/influenced by the society we live in.28. Why do you stop noticing that you are wearing shoes after you have worn them for awhile?29. What are the basic steps in transforming sound waves into perceived sound?30. How does memory change with age?31. What is the difference between sensorineural and conduction hearing loss?32. What is the difference between shallow and deep processing?33. Describe the effects of damaging the Broca’s or Wernicke’s area.34. What is the function of sensory adaptation?35. Explain the process of classical conditioning.36. Give an example of how we know that our facial expressions influence our feelings.37. What are some effortful processing strategies that can help us remember new information?38. What is the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia? 39. How does stress make us more vulnerable to sickness and disease?40. What is the difference between explicit memory and implicit memory?41. Explain the difference and relationship between id, ego, and superego.42. What are the Big Five Traits?: - -- - -43. What is the difference between internal and external locus of control?Fill in the charts:Age Range Stage Description Developmental PhenomenaSensorimotor 1.2.Preoperational 1.2.Concrete Operational1.2.Formal Operational 1.2.Stage Approximate Age FocusPreconventional MoralityEarly adolescenceActions reflect belief in basic rights and self-denied ethical principlesAge Stage Description0-1 yr Trust vs. Mistrust1-3 Learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves vs. doubting themselves3-6 Initiative vs. guilt6- puberty Learn the pleasure of applying themselves vs. feeling inferiorTeens-20s Identity vs. role confusion20s-40s Work at refining sense of self by testing roles and either forming single identity vs. confused about who they are40s-60s Generativity vs. stagnation60s+ Reflecting on his or her life, an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failureApproximate Month Stage4 Random babblingBabbling representing household languageOne-word stageTwo-word stageSentencesTheory Emotional ExplanationJames-LangeCannon-BardSchachter-SingerZajonc; LeDouxLazarusStage Age FocusOral18-36 mo Bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for controlPhallic6-puberty Dormant sexual feelingsPuberty+Defense mechanism Process to avoid anxietyRegressionReaction

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