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UA PSY 101 - Cognitive Development to Sociacial Emotional Development

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Psych 101 1st Edition Lecture 8 Outline of Last Lecture I. Conception- Zygote- Embryo- FetusII. Fetal StageA. DangersB. Fetal Alcohol SyndromeIII. Competent Newborn’s Inborn Skills- Rooting reflex- Sucking reflex- Crying when hungryIV. Maturation and ExperienceV. Brain Development: Building + Connecting Neurons- In the womb- Beginning at birth- In infancy- In early childhoodVI. Motor DevelopmentThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.VII. Baby Memory- Infantile amnesia Outline of Current Lecture I. Cognitive Development: Jean PiagetA. Assimilation and AccommodationB. The course of Developmental Stages1. Assimilation and Accommodation2. The Course of Developmental StagesII. Sensory Motor Stage- Object PermanenceIII.Preoperational Stage-Conservation-Egocentrism-Developing Theory of MindIV.Concrete Operational StageV.Formal Operational StageVI.Lev Vygotsky: Alternative to PiagetVII.Social Development: AttachmentA.Origins of AttachmentB.Origins of Attachment FamiliarityVIII. Attachment Variation: Styles of dealing with Separation1. Secure Attachment2. Insecure Attachment (anxious style)3. Insecure Attachment (avoidant style)A. What causes the different attachment styles: Nature or NurtureB. Deprivation of Attachment IX. Childhood: Self ConceptX. Childhood: Hypothetical Parenting Styles1. Authoritarian2. Permissive3. AuthoritativeA. Outcomes with Parenting StylesCurrent LectureI. Cognitive development: Jean Piaget- Cognition refers to the mental activities that help us function, including: problem solving, figuring out how the world works, developing models and concepts, storing and retrieving knowledge, and understanding and using language.- We don’t start out being able to think like adults.- Jean Piaget studied the errors in cognition made by children in order to understand in what ways they think differently than adults.A. Assimilation and Accommodation : How can a girl use her “dog” schema when encountering a cat?- She can assimilate the experience into her schema by referring to the cat as “dog” OR- She can accommodate her animal schema by separating the cat, and even different types of dogs, into separate schemas. B. The course of Developmental StagesJean Piaget believed that cognitive development:1. Is a combination of nature and nurture. Children grow by maturation as well as by learning through interacting/playing with the environment.2. Is not one continuous progression of change. Children make leaps in cognitiveabilities from one stage of development to the nextII. Sensory Motor Stage (From birth to age 6)In the sensorimotor stage, children explore by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping.- Learned at 6 to 8 months is object permanence, object permanence is the knowledge that things exist even when out of sight (i.e. Mothers face is still there even if her hands are covering it)- Can children think abstractly in this stage? No, but there is some innate understandingIII. Preoperational Stage (AGEKids in this stage can represent their schema, and even some feelings with words andimages. They can also use visual models to represent other places, and perform pretend play. - Conservation refers to the ability to understand that quantity is conserved (does not change) even when arranged in a different shape. Kids in this stage do not have conservation…yet. - Egocentrism: Can’t take another person’s point of view. Kids in this stage can onlysee through their own eyes. For example, when Bob is asked if he has a brother bob says,” Yes, my brother Jim”. When Bob is asked if Jim has a brother Bob says,”no”. - Developing theory of mind is when these children begin to see outside themselves. I.E. Bob understands that yes, Jim has a brother and that brother is me.IV. Concrete Operational Stage (begins at age 6/7 to age 11)- Children now grasp conservation and other concrete transformations- They also understand simple mathematical transformations the reversibility of operations (i.e. reversing 3+7= 10 to figure out that 10-7= 3)V. Formal Operational Stage (Age 11 and up)- Concrete operations include analogies such as “My brain is like a computer”- Formal operations includes allegorical thinking such as “People who live in a glasshouse shouldn’t throw rocks” (understanding this statement is a comment on hypocrisy, not someone in a glass house). VI.Lev Vygotsky: Alternative to Piaget-Vygotsky studied kids too, but focused on how they learn in context of social communication-Principle: children learn thinking skills by internalizing language from others anddeveloping inner speech (“put the big blocks on the bottom, not the top…”)-He saw development as building on a scaffold of mentoring, language, and cognitive support from parents and others.VII.Social Development: Attachment-Attachment refers to an emotional tie to another person. In children, attachment can appear as a desire for physical closeness to a caregiver.A. Origins of Attachment- Experiments with monkeys suggest that attachment is based on physical affectionand comfortable body contact, and no based on being rewarded with food. B. Origins of Attachment: Familiarity- Most creatures tend to attach to caregivers who have become familiar.- Birds have a critical period, hours after hatching which they might imprint. This means they become rigidly attached to the first moving object they see.VIII. Attachment Variation: Styles of dealing with Separation(Reactions to Separation and Reunion)1. Secure Attachment: Most children (60 percent) feel distress when mother leaves and seek contact with her when she returns.2. Insecure Attachment (anxious style): Clinging to mother, less likely to explore the environment, and may get loudly upset with mothers departure and remain upset when she returns.3. Insecure Attachment (avoidant style): Seeming indifferent to mother’s departure and return. A. What causes the different attachment styles: Nature or NurtureOn the nature side:- Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic style and intensity of emotional reactivity.- Some infants have an “easy” temperament; they are happy and relaxed, with predictable rhythms of needing to sleep and eat. Some seem to be “difficult”; they are irritable with unpredictable needs and behavior.On nurture side:- Mary Ainsworth believed that sensitive, responsive, calm


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