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TAMU BIOL 111 - Lab Exam 2 Review Spring 2021

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BIOL111 Lab Exam 2 Review Spring 2021 NOTE: THIS IS JUST A REVIEW. YOU SHOULD READ ALL NOTES, YOUR MATERIALS IN ECAMPUS, AND WATCH YOUR LAB VIDEOS AS WELL. FORENSIC BIOLOGY I & II 1. Constituents of a master mix used in PCR and purpose of each constituent. 2. What are short tandem repeats (STRs) and what are they used for? Why will you want to use numerous STRs? 3. DNA structure: Antiparallel and complementary 4. Basic principles of PCR, what is it used for? 5. Why do we use a loading dye? 6. The processes used to amplify DNA in PCR and the temperature at which they take place. 7. The principles of gel electrophoresis and the influencing factors. 8. When electricity is passed through the gel electrophoresis chamber, toward which of the electrodes should the DNA migrate? What property of DNA causes this to occur? 9. Know how to calculate the size of the bands on the gel. 10. ABC locus ranges anywhere between 216 to 264 base pairs. Your sample shows two bands measuring 224 and 300 base pairs, respectively. Is this sample homozygous or heterozygous for the locus of interest? 11. What purpose is the ladder serving in gel electrophoresis. 12. Influencing factors in gel electrophoresis Charge of molecule: DNA carries a negative charge so attracted to positive. Size: Smaller molecules/fragments will travel faster and further Density of gel: The denser the gel is, the slower the particles will move. You want a gel that is dense enough to separate particles but that won’t take too long. 13. Lastly, watch the videos and note the sequence of setting up PCR and gel electrophoresis.GENE EXPRESSION AND REGULATION 1. The Components of an Operon 2. Calculate B-gal enzyme activity 3. In what condition is the lac gene best expressed. 4. Know the expectations for each experimental conditionCELL DIVISION 1. The gametes for meiosis and mitosis e.g if a plant has X chromosomes in its somatic cells. the plant goes through meiosis. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in each gamete? 2. Calculate the time the "time in hours" for different phases of the cell cycle (e.g interphase, prophase e.t.c). u ar o o e o es3. The total magnification of a specimen viewed through a compound microscope. Magnification of ocular (eyepiece) X Magnification of objective 4. Know how to identify the different phases of the cell cycle under the microscope. 5. Identify parts of microscope, types of microscope and when you use each type. 6. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis HEREDITY 1. List all the possible unique gametes that can be produced by a plant with genotype Yyzz? 2. You have X offspring from a cross of YyZz x YyZz (Heterozygous). If Mendelian ratios are followed and these genes independently assort, how many offspring would you expect to have the recessive phenotype for both traits (genotype: yyzz)? Remember ratio 9:3:3:1 3. Constructing Punnett squares 4. Differentiate a recessive and dominant trait 5. Model organisms, uses and examples 6. True- breeding as it is used in heredity and what type of genotype it represents. They are homozygous and give rise to only the same phenotype when selfed. 7. Alleles are the two different forms of the same gene BIOINFORMATICS 1. Central dogma and types of mutations. 2. What is means for the genetic codon to be degenerate?3. Know what each part of phylogenetic tree represents e.g in a phylogenetic tree you would expect to find the organism that had evolved most recently on the branch tips. 4. What you expect to happen to your max score and e-value when you shorten the sequence. You would expect the score to decrease, and the E-value to

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