Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 11 - China Chronology (7 pages)

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Lecture 11 - China Chronology



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Lecture 11 China from Confucius to Empire Chronology Chronology 1046 221 BCE 722 476 BCE 476 221 BCE 6th 3rd centuries BCE 221 206 BCE 206 BCE 220 CE Zhou Dynasty Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Period Hundred Schools of Thought Qin Dynasty Han Dynasty Lecture Questions What was the relationship between the Warring States period and the emergence of the Hundred Schools of Philosophy What are the core concepts behind Confucianism Daoism and Legalism How did the early Chinese empires Qin and Han utilize or not utilize theses philosophies The Rise of the Zhou Dynasty 1046 221 BCE Zhou origins Chinese speakers seen as cousins King Wu and the Mandate of Heaven established capital at Haojing stories with him and the mandate replicate the same idea last of the kings of Shang not a virtuous king or rule Duke of Zhou capital Luoyang Western Zhou 1045 771 BCE soft state don t look all that di erent from the Shang dynasty Eastern Zhou 770 256 BCE Sunzi Sun tzu 5th c BCE and the Art of War warfare is the greatest a air of the state the basis of life and death the Way to survivial or etinction It is a subject that cannot be ignored All warfare is based on deception philosophies of war Advanced Warfare introduction of cavalry recall chariot reason since warfare in di erent types of terrains mountains swamp and wetlands peasant conscription vs early aristocratic warfare conscription peasant is forced to join the army state of warfare is increased since the size of the army is bigger than before city walls and siege warfare walls are higher and thicker catapults brillistas giant cross bows great walls boundaries walls being built along the northern frontier and in between the states keeping out the northern barbarians from the Chinese perspectives mongolians Hundred Schools of Thought conflict and ideas other examples massive intellectual movement demonstrate the complexity and diversity of ideas shared during this period dealing with the problems of intense conflict between the states similar to Greek world Confucius 551 479 BCE Kong Fuzi Master Kong come from the lower classes stable boy demonstrated intensity of thinking about the political systems and human relationship and interaction political model Duke of Zhou early Zhou figure great administrator trainer and advisor to his nephew willing to hand over power to his nephew political and teaching career serve as an advisor to the young prince but moved on after that associated with the search for a prince that had the potential to live up to the expectations of idea not successful so he built a school for a price students circulate the stories that have writings tributes to him The Teachings of Confucius Analects conservative outlook from the reading conservative outlook looking to the past for idea rule Duke of Zhou believed in the older aristocratic view virtue doesn t show self interest filial piety self less leader respect for one s elders and parents and political superiority connected to ritual and custom ritual and custom believed in ancestor worship under the Shang and Zhou dynasty lack of interest in spirits gods ethnical political system vs religion Daoism Taoism Lao tau 6th 5th BCE don t know about him historically speaking left his community and traveled vaguely into the west and mountains to become a sage Doadejing Tao Te Ching major text collection of later writings Dao the way road path channel doctrine flow of the universe basically as a human come in harmony with nature and the natural world naturalistic philosophy yin and yang shadow and light universal theory of natural correlation between seemingly opposite elements that are actually interdependent and interchangeable polar opposites can t have the concept of light without the context of darkness Legalism Shang Yang 390 338 BCE Han Feizi 280 233 BCE principles people are lazy bad and self interested law and order therefore necessary to guide them system requires highly trained administrators and generals legal ideas extremely harsh penal code cutting o of limbs tie o of two chariots running opposite directions boiling people alive punishments applied equally men and women both receive the same types of punishment children are punished the same way as their parents all classes of society is punished the same in legalist society communal implication in crimes neighbors and family inform supposed to rat out whoever is doing something incorrectly reward system rank attached to service to state see people advancing through the ranks for military service and agricultural productivity increases for military service heads productivity crops couldn t trust military service so asked for enemy s heads farmers must give extra surplus crops to rulers for brownie points promotions given sparingly give just enough for the possibility that you would get more out them social outcomes attack on aristocratic privilege state over family and local ties meritocracy reward system increased focus on education and training system runs itself while king maintains aura of authority above all the punishments and rules The Warring States and the Rise of Qin 356 BCE Shang Yang in Qin legalist reforms abolishment of aristocracy land of aristocrat given to the peasants increasing militarization merit system applied to this Qin successful applying this system increasing territorial spread King Zheng of Qin Qin Shi Huangdi r 247 210 BCE August Emperor early life 13 assigned a regent demonstrate too much control killed him o 230 success and conquest around 220 221 conquered the remainder of ancient china major chinese states compared to Octavian and Augustus Shaping China legalist structure expanded the legalist footprint throughout ancient China 48 commanderies provinces civil administrator see over agricultural production and day to day operation military commandment feudalism aristocracy abolished writing and coinage monetary unit for the empire in the coinage infrastructure progressing road system under the first emperor built over 4000 miles of roads under his reign responsible of building canals for naval transportation connects the walls Great Wall of China taxation and corvee labor Great Wall taxed people heavily through the administrative system corvee labor seen through the building of pyramids forcing peasants to work used convicts in building the structures Rewriting History massive book burning detrimental since the we don t have the writings from the 100 Schools of Thought during


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