Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 2 - Ancient Mesopotamia (3 pages)

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Lecture 2 - Ancient Mesopotamia



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Lecture 2 Ancient Mesopotamia How did geography and environment shape the history and world view of Mesopotamian peoples What role did religion play in Mesopotamian civilization How did outsiders influence the history of Mesopotamia How did Mesopotamian culture influence these same people large scale agriculture writing is important for civilization see level of complexity of interacting components for civilization What is Mesopotamia actually a greek work land between the rivers forms the eastern half of the fertile crescent has enormous flood plain due to near water large scale agriculture Population Explosion 4500 3100 BCE GROWTH HAPPENED about 60 cities enormous growth produce dramatic population growth showed how fast agriculture can grow The Sumerian City States first group of people politically are the sumerians lived souther half of Mesopotamia city state controls their own government city states don t get along well despite many common share largest city states ur uruk erode lagash comparing to earlier agriculture WAAYYY larger Working the Land first time writing in mesopotamia about 5000 people in irrigation contract Cuneiform first writing system in the world in mesopotamian history formed from redistribution system abstract words symbols phonetic can be used for language from other di erent languages More People More Problems a lot of cities competing for resources for the river Standard of Ur king dominating over another king also have di erent gods for guidance Religion in the Sumerian City States patron god grow up around temples to worship it many cities have temples held economic importance patron god is physically present in their temple and mind favorability because they are doing something right such as sacrifices and food if they can keep the god around they are doing something right Anu is very similar to Zeus since he is a lead air god kings of all gods Enlil storm and wind god natural elements early agricultural tools Enki associated with water and early civilization cause civilizations are started from rivers need to know them since they mark a transition Inanna love goddess associated with war sense of emotion in warfare overriding emotion depictied as irrational there might a shrine at the top of the buildings priest learning how to write literacy early economic transsaction the reason why we have so many priest is because the god is imagined to live inside it to keep it happy by doing rituals and sacrifices Religious and Political Connections in Sumerian City States the king are very interconnected with the god divine monarchy Atrahasis younger of generation of gods doing the work of civilzation connecting rivers through irrigation channels Sumerian thinks the gods are doing them perspective that the gods are assisting their works of civilization continuation of the working the land for civilization Gilgamesh might be a real king due to documentary evidence argued to be a real person by humans as well he has a strong



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