Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture4a (5 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2 of 5 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

lecture4a



Previewing pages 1, 2 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Lecture 4 Papal Monarchy and the Crusades Key Terms The Crusader States 1099 1291 Salah al Din Saladin 1137 8 1193 Pope Innocent III 1198 1216 Fourth Lateran Council 1215 Reconquista Guiding Questions What factors produced the crusades econ demographic growth and emergence of papcy as leader of Latin Christians How did the crusades impact relations between Latin Christendom and its neighbors greater interconnectivity via the Mediterranean as well as deep seated fear and hatred of Latin Christians Franks by Greek Orthodox Muslim populations What is a Crusade cruces signati those signed by the cross refers to the Red Cross as the crusaders seen on their tunics railing signs for the crusaders umbrella term by modern scholars of all the expeditions that established the crusades pilgrimage journey to a holy site with spiritual benefits unarmed military expedition Jerusalem and Rome sites associated with events in the Bible or Saints tradition of non violent pilgrimage crusades emerged knights to go on pilgrimage crusaders talking about men of violence good to go to confess sin or bad deeds crusades armed pilgrimage Christian Holy War Antecedents Heraclius I r 610 41 holy war vs Zoroastrian Persia Christians think that they have struggle to non Christians so they think that god thinks they want to have war against the non Christians Byzantine Arab warfare Muslim Sicily al Andalus people before the crusaders invaded were aware of a more or less frontier of Islamic and Christian cross border to religion develops Europe in 1095 patchwork of small kingdoms king or emperor don t have a lot of power king doesn t participate in the crusades since he is excommunicated and conflict with the pope power is local and rural city is not the basis of political power elites local lords warriors religious specialists bishops monks priests split between military and religious elites The Gregorian Reform Movement 1075 1095 Ecclesiastical vs political power view church funds and lands as theirs as well elite families control monasteries Pope Gregory VII r 1073 1085 most notable of the popes during this movement believe and want to end elite families to control religion and churches was not successful fighting against the pope contest with German Emperor Henry IV papacy gains in stature influence at the end of the century the stature has grown successfully papacy received more letters asking for advice local matters that you write to the pope about results in more respect for the papacy makes the pope worth listening pope doesn t control anything but he does have enough international influence that becomes increasingly mandatory to listen to The Seljuk Empire c 1040 1120 Turks from central Asia contributing factor to the crusades large numbers of Turkish tribes migrate to Iraq and Iran by 1090 successful of conquering over Iraq and Iran 1070s invade into the Byzantine Empire 1071 reaches a turning point with the Battle of Manzikert 1071 Byzantine Empire lost The Black Day Manzikert 1071 Byzantine civic elite vs military aristocracy half of the Byzantine empire retreated and rebelled against the emperor Byzantines did not realize how important the battle was and refused to cut a peace deal with the Turks Seljuk Turkish victory Loss of Anatolia central Turkey central bread basket and source of troops for the Byzantine Eclipse of Byzantine power Turks are now close to Constantinople which is the capital of the Byzantine Empire interrupted the communication in the empire The Byzantine Empire ca 1095 Turkish threat due to their short distance to their capital Byzantine survival in question Emperor Alexios I Komnenos asks for aid from papacy 1080s people make plans and set initiatives in motion and have no idea of the outcome for help with the Turkish threat during the reform movement Urban II and the First Crusade Council of Clermont March 21 1095 Urban II calls for campaign to save Byzantium opportunity to reform and part of the Christain duty appealing to their conscience warfare is an excuse for the knight to do their religious duty Crusaders battle cry Deus vult God wills it saying it exiting Clermont successful cause he calls the aristocrat as the leaders rather than the emperors expeditions from 1096 The First Crusade 1095 1099 Pogroms Rhineland German crusaders attacked the Jewish community convert or death Jewish communities paid the price and still end up being killed anyways leaders of anti Jewish massacres are local lords the Jews were not allowed to hold land but hold in money making intensified the division between Christians and non Christians Crusaders take Jerusalem 1099 storming the city produced a massacre knights of the first crusaders drew blood up to their horses knees killing Jews Muslims and eastern Christians if you were in Jerusalem you dead saw this mass killing as their duty from God wills it defending Christians beginning of the crusader states that exist for 200 years king of Jerusalem is the iconic figure Gen l massacre of populace Foundation of K of Jerusalem The Crusader States c 1135 Outremer the lands Beyond the Sea 1135 the Crusader States at their extent replicate European sociopolitical order adopted the model of localized power control rerrirotires through controlling castles and peasantries Latin elite rules over a mixed Arab Greek Armenian and Syrian population The Military Orders warrior monks run hospitals have their own peasants and castles revenue from land holdings and mercantile activities pay for their military activities and hospitals international to support fighting the Muslims separated from their families due to their loyalty defend Jerusalem and the Holy Land most important orders Knights Templarand the Knights Hospitaller How do Muslims react initials response slow takes them a while to figure out how to figure out to fight the crusaders mid 12th century power in Syria gained some success in gaining back some land from the crusaders Muslim Syria fragmentary kingdoms Salah al Din a lionized enemy successful at sustaining the crusader states destroyed the crusader states at the Battle of Hattin famous for sparing the enemies life yet made an exception at the execution of military prisoners on the field from the crusaders Hattin 1187 crushing Muslim victory major disaster for the crusaders armies are wiped out crusader states are defenseless against Salah al Din s armies he regained Jerusalem The Ayyubid Empire area that Salah al Din conquered in the mid


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view lecture4a and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view lecture4a and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?