Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture4a (5 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2 of 5 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

lecture4a



Previewing pages 1, 2 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

lecture4a

38 views


Pages:
5
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
History 2 - Comparative World History

Unformatted text preview:

Lecture 4 Papal Monarchy and the Crusades Key Terms The Crusader States 1099 1291 Salah al Din Saladin 1137 8 1193 Pope Innocent III 1198 1216 Fourth Lateran Council 1215 Reconquista Guiding Questions What factors produced the crusades econ demographic growth and emergence of papcy as leader of Latin Christians How did the crusades impact relations between Latin Christendom and its neighbors greater interconnectivity via the Mediterranean as well as deep seated fear and hatred of Latin Christians Franks by Greek Orthodox Muslim populations What is a Crusade cruces signati those signed by the cross refers to the Red Cross as the crusaders seen on their tunics railing signs for the crusaders umbrella term by modern scholars of all the expeditions that established the crusades pilgrimage journey to a holy site with spiritual benefits unarmed military expedition Jerusalem and Rome sites associated with events in the Bible or Saints tradition of non violent pilgrimage crusades emerged knights to go on pilgrimage crusaders talking about men of violence good to go to confess sin or bad deeds crusades armed pilgrimage Christian Holy War Antecedents Heraclius I r 610 41 holy war vs Zoroastrian Persia Christians think that they have struggle to non Christians so they think that god thinks they want to have war against the non Christians Byzantine Arab warfare Muslim Sicily al Andalus people before the crusaders invaded were aware of a more or less frontier of Islamic and Christian cross border to religion develops Europe in 1095 patchwork of small kingdoms king or emperor don t have a lot of power king doesn t participate in the crusades since he is excommunicated and conflict with the pope power is local and rural city is not the basis of political power elites local lords warriors religious specialists bishops monks priests split between military and religious elites The Gregorian Reform Movement 1075 1095 Ecclesiastical vs political power view church funds and lands as theirs as well elite families control monasteries Pope Gregory VII r 1073 1085 most notable of the popes during this movement believe and want to end elite families to control religion and churches was not successful fighting against the pope contest with German Emperor Henry IV papacy gains in stature influence at the end of the century the stature has grown successfully papacy received more letters asking for advice local matters that you write to the pope about results in more respect for the papacy makes the pope worth listening pope doesn t control anything but he does have enough international influence that becomes increasingly mandatory to listen to The Seljuk Empire c 1040 1120 Turks from central Asia contributing factor to the crusades large numbers of Turkish tribes migrate to Iraq and Iran by 1090 successful of conquering over Iraq and Iran 1070s invade into the Byzantine Empire 1071 reaches a turning point with the Battle of Manzikert 1071 Byzantine Empire lost The Black Day



View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view lecture4a and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view lecture4a and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?