Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture2 (5 pages)

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lecture2



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Lecture 2 Islam Byzantium and Latin Christendom c 1000 1200 Key Terms Abbasid Caliphate Qarmatians Byzantine Commonwealth Manzikert Peace of God Domesday Book Main Questions What geographical factors shape these societies Access to distance from trade routes and neighboring cultures How does power work in these societies Institutions locations of political religious authority Geographical Setting The Islamic Lands c 1000 CE expanded around the middle eastern Asian have access to major trade routes of Euro Asian England Netherlands China essential interface of trade and communication in Euro Asia have access to far more knowledge and surviving manuscripts in Euro Asia than Europeans due to the century of conquest that followed the death of Muhammad Centrality of Islamic heartlands trade routes increased communication increased in knowledge downside exposed to potential threats to all sides The Islamic Lands and Nomads trade routes irrigation works grain agriculture possible useful allies deadly enemies allies if Muslim rulers enemies if you don t keep them happy Banu Hilal Bedouin Touareg lived in modern Egypt used the group against their enemies made tremendous damage to irrigation works agriculture dropped problematic interrupting trade and communication across the world The Byzantine Empire 1025 modern Greece and Turkey Constantinople Istanbul sit on major trade routes that allows prosperity for the capital make the Byzantine valuable land for the benefit access to goods technology and trade faced threats on all sides waterways Euxine Sea Black Sea and Aegean Sea created the trade and communication Byzantium Between Three Worlds talked about old map configured Western Europe c 1000 Latin Christendom pope emerges as the spiritual leader as Catholic kingdoms able to develop since they don t face any invasions due to the far regions they live away from the trade routes gradual but steady Christianity product of the Roman Empire people are slowly converting to Latin Christianity king send missionaries to Eastern Europe and Scandinavia to convert them Forms and Practices of Power political and religious authority how religious operate on the ground institutions emerged from religious groups Political Power in the Islamic Lands Caliph caliphate reference to the land Caliph located in Baghdad losing power to the dynasties that are in charge of Morocco and Spain that are far away from Baghdad based in cities key to power regional dynasties breaking away from the caliphate Urban centers Baghdad Cairo etc where political and economic power emerged emerged from the Arabian desert use of non Muslim slave soldiers regional dynasties employ non Muslim as soldiers non Muslim will be more loyal toward them developed in the 11th century as a trend since many Arab soldiers that carried out the initial conquest were rebellious toward the Caliph and Baghdad requirement of non Muslim and slaves is an attempt to keep you alive rather than backstabbing you well



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