Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture2 (5 pages)

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Lecture 2 Islam Byzantium and Latin Christendom c 1000 1200 Key Terms Abbasid Caliphate Qarmatians Byzantine Commonwealth Manzikert Peace of God Domesday Book Main Questions What geographical factors shape these societies Access to distance from trade routes and neighboring cultures How does power work in these societies Institutions locations of political religious authority Geographical Setting The Islamic Lands c 1000 CE expanded around the middle eastern Asian have access to major trade routes of Euro Asian England Netherlands China essential interface of trade and communication in Euro Asia have access to far more knowledge and surviving manuscripts in Euro Asia than Europeans due to the century of conquest that followed the death of Muhammad Centrality of Islamic heartlands trade routes increased communication increased in knowledge downside exposed to potential threats to all sides The Islamic Lands and Nomads trade routes irrigation works grain agriculture possible useful allies deadly enemies allies if Muslim rulers enemies if you don t keep them happy Banu Hilal Bedouin Touareg lived in modern Egypt used the group against their enemies made tremendous damage to irrigation works agriculture dropped problematic interrupting trade and communication across the world The Byzantine Empire 1025 modern Greece and Turkey Constantinople Istanbul sit on major trade routes that allows prosperity for the capital make the Byzantine valuable land for the benefit access to goods technology and trade faced threats on all sides waterways Euxine Sea Black Sea and Aegean Sea created the trade and communication Byzantium Between Three Worlds talked about old map configured Western Europe c 1000 Latin Christendom pope emerges as the spiritual leader as Catholic kingdoms able to develop since they don t face any invasions due to the far regions they live away from the trade routes gradual but steady Christianity product of the Roman Empire people are slowly converting to Latin Christianity king send missionaries to Eastern Europe and Scandinavia to convert them Forms and Practices of Power political and religious authority how religious operate on the ground institutions emerged from religious groups Political Power in the Islamic Lands Caliph caliphate reference to the land Caliph located in Baghdad losing power to the dynasties that are in charge of Morocco and Spain that are far away from Baghdad based in cities key to power regional dynasties breaking away from the caliphate Urban centers Baghdad Cairo etc where political and economic power emerged emerged from the Arabian desert use of non Muslim slave soldiers regional dynasties employ non Muslim as soldiers non Muslim will be more loyal toward them developed in the 11th century as a trend since many Arab soldiers that carried out the initial conquest were rebellious toward the Caliph and Baghdad requirement of non Muslim and slaves is an attempt to keep you alive rather than backstabbing you well founded fear of rebellion how troops will stay loyal toward you The Abbasid Caliphate 750 1258 established in 750s 8th 9th c golden age faced nomadic incursions from the east 9th c slave revolts destroyed the irrigation network of Iraq Iran and Syria hiring slaves of labor and fight might not always work able to stop the revolt but not recover from the damage military strongmen hiring slaves for military might not always be the right attempt since they could also revolt rather than staying loyal fragmentation regional dynasties begin to break away too far away from Baghdad to maintain control The Abbasids Too Big to not Fail power moves away and trading centers begin to emerge the Abbasid Caliphate s power is shrinking yet it is present Rival Caliphates ca 1000 Abbasid 749 1258 vs Umayyad 929 1031 modern Spain and Fatimid 909 1171 northern Africa competition of loyalty and revenue of the trading center area Religious Authority in Islam for christianity there is priest to pray toward religious authorities Ulema Qadi no priesthood in charge of interpreting the Quran responsible for o ering opinions and judgements of problems of everyday people and political rulers decide on matters of doctrine unlike Christendom having a single figure pope to rule they have an uncentralized authority Ulema is organized into 4 di erent schools of thought Qadi is appointed as a ruler charged with everyday ruling of how the Baghdad works selected by the Caliphate participate in religious decision rigorist reform movements Abbasids Almohads arise in remote and mountainous areas want to improve the ideas of religious ideals of Islam against the Caliphate based on how they somehow betrayed the pure form of Islam from time to time although there are clear figures and institutions for proper and improper Islam this power Ulema loses control in the situation and the reform movements have a pretty profound impact on the Islam world Growing Divide Sunnis and Shi ites problem who is Muhammad s successor Sunni accept the Umayad family Shi ites accept the Ali which is his son in law Ali and his descendants seen as the proper heirs of Muhammad for the Shi ites Shi ite regimes Sunnis subjects the Buyids Abbasids under the rule The Qarmatians more extreme examples of the reform movements arose in the 800s in the oasis in Eastern Arabia E Arab syncretic mystic sect syncretic borrow from other traditions from Sunni ideas and drawing upon preIslamic traditions from Arabia and Iranian faith of Zoro extreme to what they believe in not a threat to the Abbasids became a problem to them when they took over some land and began organizing a kingdom for themselves alliance with veteran tribes and control of the cities on the Arabian coast led to power quickly attacks on pilgrims to Mecca due to their against beliefs slaughtering groups of pilgrims in the desert Sack of Mecca 930 reign of terror carry o the black stone which is the central object in Mecca and carry it back slaughter the people found in Mecca believed that they correctly interpreted Islam give them the duty to carry on warfare on other non correct Islam interpretations finally an Abbasid army stopped the revolt in 1060 yet the damage has already been done The Empire Strikes Back Byzantium c 1000 survived the earlier attacks from the earlier Islamic armies going through a revival period Political Horizons The Byzantine Empire Rome s legacy law bureaucracy autocracy duty to legislate strong bureaucracy from Rome autocracy


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