Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 10 - The Roman Empire (8 pages)

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Lecture 10 - The Roman Empire



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Lecture 10 The Roman Empire Chronology 27 BCE 68 CE 69 96 BCE 96 192 CE 193 235 CE 235 284 CE 284 305 CE Julio Claudian Dynasty Flavian Dynasty The Good Emperors and Commodus The Several Dynasty Third Century Crisis Reign of Diocletian establishment of Tetrarchy Lecture Questions In what ways did Augustus utilize Republican traditions to establish the Principate Whatdo the Roman frontiers tell us concerning traditional Roman practices and viewpoints as well as cultural borrowing on the part of both Romans and others What was the Third Century Crisis and what changes did it bring about in the Roman political structure Roman Republic Overview From Punic Wars to the Death of Marc Antony punic wars 264 146 BCE Rome vs Phecians 1st Rome and Carthage fought over Sicily 2nd violation of peace treaty in Iberia modern Spain conflict of Hannibal cross into the pennisula fighting the romans romans sent an army in north africa to force Hannibal retreat to Carthage last fall of Carthage to Rome 146 BCE significant date Iberian Peninsula and Greece fall under Roman empire result of empire cultural borrowing from Greeks as part of Romans role of wars generating the landless class from the soldiers fighting so long that their land is taken up by rich land owners for plantations economic problem homeless soldiers can t play in the Roman economy use landless poors in the advantage of the revolt rise of the strong men Marius and Sula and Caesar and Pompey using many respects of socioeconomic problems to their advantage the civil wars Octavian defeating mark Antony Donations of Alexandria land grants to his children from Antony to Celopatra which enraged the Octavians Octavian and the Principate 30 BCE 284 BCE from Octavian to Augustus illustrious one republic titles for an undercover emperor try to hide his powerful title Princeps Senatus First Man of the Senate can put forward his own legistration and agenda for the day bring up his own suggestions Princeps Civitatis First Citizen show some humility Tribune for life Plebian o ce veto power Augustus knew he can t take kingship because the Romans have aversion toward the idea can t be a dictator took Tribune so he can have the power to veto others when people are trying to overturn his decisions and rulings and run over the Senate territories armies military colonies and bread divided the Roman provinces between him and the Senates chooses himself the provinces that are the recently conquered Senates get the more established that last longer did this because there would be Roman armies in the newer provinces due to the need of military control concern with the size of the army based on the civil war nervous of the size of the army broke up the army somewhat does it to establish a roman footprint throughout the provinces taken soldiers from the frontiers settling them in lands between the established part of the Roman part Romanizations of culture and politics take control of the grains giving poor people food which established good will with the landless poor Setting the World Aright family values Pater patria recall paterfamilias father of the country giving security to the community as their father Pontifex Maximus chief priest title associated to the pope re establishment of Roman power abroad Romans lost their standards from the Parthians set things back in order big deal to the Romans Julio Claudian Dynasty 27 BCE 68 BCE did not provide a program passed on the throne to his step son which is Tiberius Tiberius things went well Caligula screw up became the first Roman emperor to be assassinated some the Senators wanted to restore the public still have the Senate and have titles held by the emperor which is still the traditions of the public Cladius step into the throne after things went reasonable well Nero in love with the idea of being an artist great singer no singing skill of what so ever also famous for wanting to kill his mother failed in multiple attempts due to the mother trying to control his extrencititeis Nero successfully killed his mother turned the Senate against him chased down by a mob too scared to commit suicide had someone to kill him killed o his pregnant wife no heir The Year of the Four Emperors civil war The Flavian Dynasty 69 96 CE Vespasian hand throne to family members built colosseum under his reign Titus died after a couple of years Domitian Titus s brother bad reputation with Roman authors comes into major conflict with the Senators autocratic in dealing with the Senate assassinated in the end by the people sent by the Senate Five Good Emperors 96 180 CE Nerva established Roman elite see older successful elites adopted by the Roman emperor to succeed him choosing better people to rule have the golden age of the emperor Trajan Roman reach the greatest territorial extent big size Hadrian great administrator built Hadrians wall in England try to make improvements for e ectiveness for established frontiers Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius strangled out by his own son but eventually die by illness The Pax Romana 27 BCE to 180 CE Roman peace a deceitful name there is continual conflict in the Roman world out in the east no city walls in the Mediterranean there is peace around the Mediterranean secure period that they don t need walls Edward Gibbon on 2nd century Rome If a man were called to fix the period in the historyo fhte world during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous he would without hestitation name that whiche elapsed from the death of Domitian to the accession of Commodus The Roman Legions in the Early Empire numbers and make up 5000 men messengers medics engineers Roman legions architectural achievements built by the legions flexibility Roman legions divisible into smaller units ex Centurion 80 to 100 men break o into di erent units for battle auxiliaries non Romans Roman allies that are fighting alongside with the Roman legions Germans from Iberian peninsula would serve as their cavalries legion up to 10 000 at times Establishing a Footprint provincial governors come from senatorial class governor would move from one location to the next not life long terms as governors Senate and emperor is concerned with the possibility of the revolt correspondence and language governors have ongoing communication with senates and emperors mostly Latin eastern Mediterranean greek military colonies Romanization client kings client states out of the edges of the Roman empire come to a deal where a


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