Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 7 - Greek City States (6 pages)

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Lecture 7 - Greek City States



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Lecture 7 Greek City States Chronology 1150 800 BCE 800 500 BCE 500 323 BCE 490 BCE 480 479 BCE Greek Dark Age Archaic Period Classical Period First Persian Invasion Battle of Marathon Lecture Questions How did the Achaemenid Persian invasions shape the history of Classical Greece What historical realities gave shape to the di erences in Sparta and Athens What role did political ideology play in the The Peloponnesian War as Ancient Cold War An Ideological Conflict proto communistic society that is similar to the Soviet Union ancient democracy di erent to our representative democracy The Rise of the Polis in the Archaic Period 800 500 BCE Greece came out of it poorly reduction in population lost of writing loss of international trade massive decrease in trade emerging from the dark age and greek colonization increase in agriculture and new form of writing Polis Greek city state southern half of the Greek city states is dominated by this structure law codes and consistutions numerous law codes will to use their own which is important to their identity example Law Code of Dreros prevent anyone from establishing power two distinctive rules oligarchy rule by the elites Tyranny single person rule often with support from commoners ruled by a tyrant patron gods and civic heroes someone who live in a distant past that are important to their identity A Greek Common Cause shared language religious pantheon important di erent dialects regional groups due to the dialects and variations of the language each city state has a separate patron god still worship the same pantheon god frequent seasonal fighting between city states but don t see all that much in the possession of territories only one example that a Greece city is destroyed by another Greece city symbolic warfare pan hellenic religious festivals and games Olympics religious festivals multiple games in the Greek world can t fight each other and participate in the game temporary truce regional identities Sparta and Athens Not So Di erent at the Start 800 BCE didn t look all that di erent Sparta still have artistic developments musical competitions trade out of the city not common in classical Sparta The Spartan Conquests Dorian Spartans Spartans are outsiders that came from the north Territorial conquest Messenian Wars 8th 7th c BCE Spartans have power over the Messenians two wars slave population outnumbered the Spartans revolt Helots Spartan slaves former Messenians maintained for the agricultural purposes Lycurgus and the Spartan Great Rhetra viewed as a Spartan sage with the law maker political constitution The Spartan System A Military System mixed constitution dual monarchy two kings Gerousia council of elders 60 years or older Spartiate Assembly smaller Ephors governors regulate the actions of the Spartan king religious components are upheld Agoge military education system for Spartiate boys had to be Spartan citizens to participate in this education boys around age of 7 taken from parents mothers put into hard lifestyle harsh training possibility of death encouraged to steal to viewed as survival instinct punished if caught stealing beaten taught military virtue boys allowed to kill Helots Spartans are concerned with their slave population declare war on the Helots population the Ephors and Secret Service allowed to kill Helots those moving towards rebellion Spartan women have freedom ran the Spartanian farm Helots provided the labor seemed like managers over the farms allowed to participate in exercise produce stronger soldiers stronger women stronger children a closed military society do not like foreigners Athens A Port City with Constant Tension Between Rich and Poor port city outside influence international trade temples from other cities Draco s Law Code late 7th century BCE focused on homicide very harsh aristocracy establish codes to benefit the rich put the poor in debt slavery to aristocrat Solon s reforms 594 BCE overtuned the Draco s Law Code sage or lawgiver abolishes debt slavery establishes assembly where are citizens can participate kind of but not like democracy early stage of it Athenian Democracy the Peisistratid tyranny 562 510 BCE establish political rule continue giving the poor more power festivals in Athens for identity Cleisthenes reforms 509 BCE associate the rise of the true democracy in Athens break up in tradition in elite grouping reestablish the tribes make the lower class participate in law courts and more elite assemblies that are connected to the main assembly Demos people kratia power break up the word of democracy recognition of the power of the lower class talk about the lower class of often times Athenian popular democracy and ostracism equal voice in that assembly equal say in the laws and major political decisions ostracism assembly allowed to take a vote to banish someone elite preventative measure that had a negative memory of someone having too much power prevent another tyranny Ostraka Cimon son of Miltiades Sparta vs Athens 5th c BCE Sparta mixed constitution associated with oligarchy small citizenry closed military society few foreigners little trade arts not endorsed heavily relatively powerful women many slaves created horribly powerful army Peloponnesian League Sparta and allies in Peloponnese region Athens democratic large citizenry heavy foreign presence in cit trade oriented arts supported women not powerful many slaves treated okay moderate navy Sparta usually o er military defense of the city states more advanced than Athens The Greco Persian Wars I The Ionian Revolt 499 493 BCE Herodotus mid 5th c BCE collected evidence or stories from the war traveled over the Meditteranean world can t trust all the stories does provide massive information for the war Greek Ionia western coast of Anatolia region fell under Cyrus I persuade people to revolt against the king Spartans Athenians and maps Athenian support and failure The Greco Persian Wars II Darius I and Athens failed in rebellion city states vs conscript army Battle of Marathon 490 BCE the Marathon runner The Greco Persian Wars III Xerxes I s expedition set another expedition to Greece sent more armies compared to his father claim to set about 2 5 million soldiers but realistically more than 200 00 men Thermopylae 480 BCE Spartan sacrifice battle established all Greek city states allowed Persians for political rule Spartan sacrifice the battle depicted in movie 300 group of 300 Spartans were realivtively successful in


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