Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 3 - Ancient Egypt (7 pages)

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Lecture 3 - Ancient Egypt



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Lecture 3 Ancient Egypt Lecture Chronology 3000 2686 BCE 2686 2610 BCE 2160 2055 BCE 2055 1650 BCE 1650 1550 BCE 1550 1069 BCE Early Dynastic Period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period New Kingdom Lecture Questions What role did geography play in shaping the Egyptian worldview What is the relationship between Eqyptian political rule and religion What role did crisis play in bringing about long term change in Egypt Climate Change Desiccation and Migration can see ancient river beds area dried out have evidence of civilization or people Elephant from Tadrart Acacus Libyan desert evidence from ancient people that the landscape that did not exists before From the Desert to the River growth of settlement from 8500 BCE to 3500 BCE along the riverside Egyptian Geography easily defended borders drying out process or desiccation of the Sahara Egypt faces desert that is hard to invade or cross it near the Mediterranean Sea along the Nile River easy to defend river mouths in the northern part cataract slow moving waterfall South of Egypt couldn t sail on the Nile and have to pick up and put it in the water Nile flood similar to Mesopotamia flooding essential to agricultural needs easily controlled do have irrigation networks developing in Egypt not that large since the desert can absorb the flood Agricultural Potential in comparison with Mesopotamia transportation well suited for going up and down the river current naturally flows to the sea fairly slow current and not powerful flowing up river is easy due to the wind which needs a sail using teams of horses and asses to travel upstream as well movement of good and trade political control king able to control large rivers so they can cross The Gift of the Nile deep respect for the Nile since it pops out of nowhere geography wise a lot of animals and plants for deep appreciation Nile sits in the center of Egypt civilization positive picture of life and afterlife which is way opposite of Mesopotamian civlization life is way easier The Hymn to the Nile praise to the Nile generally a more positive picture of life and afterlife resulting focus on Nile River and tendency towards isolationism Early Dynastic Period ca 3500 2686 increasingly complex chiefdoms clustering of settlement no kingdoms agricultural villages and trading centers series of agricultural up and down the nile which is way di erent to Mesopotamia no large cities di erent to Mesopotamia outside trade people developed political systems which traded developed at the same time trade with levant Lebanon and Israel trade with Mesopotamia contact with Newbians and Egyptians which are connected by the Nile River Lower Egypt Memphis vs Upper Egypt Thebes division upper egypt southern half of Egypt lower egypt northern half of Egypt due to water flow from stream to sea Political Unification in Early Dynastic Egypt The Narmer Palette 3100 BCE unification of upper and lower Egypt evidence The Narmer Palette upper



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