Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 3 - Ancient Egypt (7 pages)

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Lecture 3 - Ancient Egypt



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Lecture 3 Ancient Egypt Lecture Chronology 3000 2686 BCE 2686 2610 BCE 2160 2055 BCE 2055 1650 BCE 1650 1550 BCE 1550 1069 BCE Early Dynastic Period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period New Kingdom Lecture Questions What role did geography play in shaping the Egyptian worldview What is the relationship between Eqyptian political rule and religion What role did crisis play in bringing about long term change in Egypt Climate Change Desiccation and Migration can see ancient river beds area dried out have evidence of civilization or people Elephant from Tadrart Acacus Libyan desert evidence from ancient people that the landscape that did not exists before From the Desert to the River growth of settlement from 8500 BCE to 3500 BCE along the riverside Egyptian Geography easily defended borders drying out process or desiccation of the Sahara Egypt faces desert that is hard to invade or cross it near the Mediterranean Sea along the Nile River easy to defend river mouths in the northern part cataract slow moving waterfall South of Egypt couldn t sail on the Nile and have to pick up and put it in the water Nile flood similar to Mesopotamia flooding essential to agricultural needs easily controlled do have irrigation networks developing in Egypt not that large since the desert can absorb the flood Agricultural Potential in comparison with Mesopotamia transportation well suited for going up and down the river current naturally flows to the sea fairly slow current and not powerful flowing up river is easy due to the wind which needs a sail using teams of horses and asses to travel upstream as well movement of good and trade political control king able to control large rivers so they can cross The Gift of the Nile deep respect for the Nile since it pops out of nowhere geography wise a lot of animals and plants for deep appreciation Nile sits in the center of Egypt civilization positive picture of life and afterlife which is way opposite of Mesopotamian civlization life is way easier The Hymn to the Nile praise to the Nile generally a more positive picture of life and afterlife resulting focus on Nile River and tendency towards isolationism Early Dynastic Period ca 3500 2686 increasingly complex chiefdoms clustering of settlement no kingdoms agricultural villages and trading centers series of agricultural up and down the nile which is way di erent to Mesopotamia no large cities di erent to Mesopotamia outside trade people developed political systems which traded developed at the same time trade with levant Lebanon and Israel trade with Mesopotamia contact with Newbians and Egyptians which are connected by the Nile River Lower Egypt Memphis vs Upper Egypt Thebes division upper egypt southern half of Egypt lower egypt northern half of Egypt due to water flow from stream to sea Political Unification in Early Dynastic Egypt The Narmer Palette 3100 BCE unification of upper and lower Egypt evidence The Narmer Palette upper white crown of upper Egypt falcon represents god of horus represents his right to kingship lower red crown of lower egypt bull racing into the city wall pharaoh associated with sacred bull Periodization upper egypt and lower egypt combined the crowning which is more evidence of unification Dynastic system Narmer Menes 1st dynasty kingdoms and Intermediate Periods Egyptian Scripts origin multiple scripts scripts are not borrowed from Mesopotamia maybe they made their own script after seeing ancient mesopotamia developed hieratic simliar to cursive writing hieroglyphic greek term to describe egyptian term sacred writing script saw in temples priest decorating the temples with it ceremonies and religion inside the pyramids demotic papyrus remember from mesopotamia where they have clay tablets from baking in the sun wrote on notably wood prefer papyrus it lasts in a dry envrionment tons of documents from egypt that lasts till today doesn t last to wet humid climates Pharaoh term for the Egyptian king divine monarchy individual who lives in a great palace he himself is a living god Ma at truth order balance justice state formation and agricultural productivity no unified region until there is a pharaoh he is closely connected to agriculture digging out irrigation channel Governors Priests and Scribes Nomes and Nomarchs nomes are divided districts where ruled over governors called monarchs due to the pharaoh ruling over a large region of land The Priesthood responsible for religious maintenance establishing connection between god and pharaoh writing like Mesopotamia economic connection temple owning a lot of the land around it priests renting the land associated with food storage food being brought in to the temple for large scale storage of the community The Scribes important upper class of people possibly the middle class established writing schools women had access to writing schools as well Pharaoh and Egyptian Religion Pharaoh divine in life and death Pharaoh is a living god Osiris and Set Isis and Horus Osiris is the most important god of the underworld and afterlife Osiris as symbol of renewal first Pharaoh of Egypt told them to civilize in art come over to take over the king of the dead also called the god of the living Set is his brother that killed Osiris threw away all his body parts Isis is the wife and sister of Osiris search his body parts all over Egypt can t find his genital made a gold member instead to make Horus Horus made a son with falcon face challenged the kingship of Set managed to kill Set closely associated with Pharaoh s son Pharaohs marry their own sisters to maintain the bloodline Pharaoh as Horus and Osiris renewal cycle associated with the Nile new living Pharaoh and once dead becomes Osiris festivals that plant seeds connected idea of life cycle of agriculture The Pharaoh s Afterlife Hymn to Pharaoh 2600 BCE The King has not died the death Men fall and their name ceases to be Old Kingdoms 2686 2181 Pyramids and State Formation symbolism appropriate tomb and afterlife of the Pharaoh Pyramids of Giza 26th c BCE reflect symbol of national power administration shows how the Pharaoh had a lot of power to build monumental buildings many types of occupations throughout the civilization corv e labor pyramids are not built by slaves but instead of Egyptian peasants labor o of working in the fields to help the Pharaoh to build these monuments Borrowing Pyramids Grand Ziggurat of Ur house of the god with a lot of priests


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