Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture 11 - china (5 pages)

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lecture 11 - china



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Lecture 11 China from Mongols to the Manchus Key Terms Yongle emperor Macao Society of Jesus Jesuits Manchus Guiding Questions How did Ming emperors project power and what limited their contraol over the empire Ming emperors ruled through a bureaucracy dominated by eunuchs yet over time bureaucratic inertia a factor in Ming collapse How did China handle the outside world foreigners foreign goods and ideas this period was marked by a tension between isolationism and an openness to outside ideas on Chinese terms Hongwu and Imperial Recovery Hongwu r 1368 1398 need to restore central authority thanks to his long reign to establish his authority close supervision of government a airs 1376 1393 4 purges of o cials opponents to the regime toward the middle of his reign 100 000 people were executed for rebellion descent and disagreement uncertain regime to consolidate their authority expand bureaucracy established taxes Public Works and Reforestation village commissions established maintain irrigation works reforestation provided for central government for village leaders as part of authority land reclamation mass reforestation 1 billion trees planted in Hong s reign lost of forest due to agriculture ecology and modern preservation happened before modern times Hongwu and Religion origins in Red Turban movement emphasis on divine support for Ming rule Nanking renamed Yingtian In Response to Heaven build up connection between emperor and heaven for authority The Imperial Cult expansion codification of court ceremonial rituals and rights for the emperor himself perform sacrifices for the good of the country o cials now kneel in emperor s presence emperor s performance of annual rites The Yongle Emperor r 1402 24 construction of Forbidden City in Beijing meant to shock and awe of people who see it massive building project create a separate focus for imperial power commoners are not allowed in it expands imperial bureaucracy turns to unix as his o cials of choice establish o ces to control the bureaucrats and unix himself Eastern Depot extralegal police agency investigates state o cial eunuchs Eunuchs in the Imperial Bureaucracy Yongle establishes Directorate of Ceremonial head of all eunuchs oversees eunuch school security imperial library non Chinese castrated and raised in imperial palace China under the Ming 1600 about 231 million people most heavily populated in the world 90 live in the countryside engaged in farming healthy population variolation vs smallpox village commissions invest in public works cleanliness e orts to clean up villages The Village Community markets temples centers for community taxes collected by village village chiefs link between village and central power charged with collecting the tax local leaders of the village serve as middle men between the imperial government and village itself having steady reliable person to go problem is that they can build local power that could be against the central power The Family and Confucianism patriarchal family households the primary focus of life worship of ancestors family shrines shrines for family ancestors and gods in the house family acknowledges the emperor as shrines as well state sponsored confucianism restoring it as the o cial ideology backed by the dynasty support of the patriarchal ideals II Chain and the Outside World The Imperial Tribute System other rulers subjects of the emperor trade seen as a gift to barbarian peoples tribute rulers required to send gifts as bizarre as possible gira es tropical birds etc Zheng He s Voyages 1405 33 instigated by Yongle emperor Zheng He Muslim eunuch Chinese traders already active in South East Asia Indian Ocean The Voyages Purpose proclamations of Chinese good intentions lavish gifts rulers encouraged to acknowledge Son of Heaven s authority no colonies or military conquests China and Foreign Trade Portuguese arrive at Macao 1557 established themselves at Macao confined to Macao walled o from mainland Macao is walled o and away from China people are only allowed to enter and exit to trade with the Chinese Biennial trade fairs at Guangzhou silk porcelein Chinese tea begin to circle around the maritime trade The Jesuits and China Society of Jesus f 1540 missionary theological work elite highly trained preacher scholars missionary activity in Americas India China established foundation on Macao interested in converting the Chinese China and Japan seen as the last frontier or area where Christianity can spread hoping to beat the Protestants there Europe s religious problems become to the world s religious problems active in using the printing press for their writings Matteo Ricci in China Jesuits often treated as spies Ricci arrives in China in 1584 stays until death 1610 accepted into Confucian elite clocks Ricci s map gift emperor for winding clocks present the emperor the map of the world including the Americas allowed to move from Macao to Beijing emperor generally refuse to see foreigners but Ricci was able to based on this standing became easily fluent in Chinese presenting useful European technologies worked their way into the empire to convert the top Chinese societies to Catholicism The Yuanming Yuan Palace imperial summer palace designed in Italian baroque style by Jesuits miniature walled town squares shops etc eunuchs dressed as westerners emperor seems to be happy to be a westerner in his palace despite his dislike of Europeans spreading around China China the World s Silver Tomb 1571 Spanish open trans Pacific route Acapulco Manila silver only commodity Chinese accept for silk Japanese New World silver China allowed China to participate in the global economy silver is what the Chinese want in the real world only accept silver for any European o er Europeans want the silk and porcelain so they collected silver to exchange with China The Consequences of the Silver Flood monetization of Chinese economy silver becomes basis for tax system paying taxes a ect merchants and traders peasants subject to price inflation or currency scarcity required to pay their tax in silver exposed to price inflation when the silver supply is cut o unable to find the silver to pay taxes Consequences of Silver II China now linked global economy silver shortages disrupt Chinese economy 17th century period of economic crisis Japanese suppression of foreign trade The Early 17th Century Inertia and Dysfunction socioeconomic disruptions from silver bureaucratic inertia Wanli emperor r 1573 1620


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