Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture 11 - china (5 pages)

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lecture 11 - china



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lecture 11 - china

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5
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
History 2 - Comparative World History

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Lecture 11 China from Mongols to the Manchus Key Terms Yongle emperor Macao Society of Jesus Jesuits Manchus Guiding Questions How did Ming emperors project power and what limited their contraol over the empire Ming emperors ruled through a bureaucracy dominated by eunuchs yet over time bureaucratic inertia a factor in Ming collapse How did China handle the outside world foreigners foreign goods and ideas this period was marked by a tension between isolationism and an openness to outside ideas on Chinese terms Hongwu and Imperial Recovery Hongwu r 1368 1398 need to restore central authority thanks to his long reign to establish his authority close supervision of government a airs 1376 1393 4 purges of o cials opponents to the regime toward the middle of his reign 100 000 people were executed for rebellion descent and disagreement uncertain regime to consolidate their authority expand bureaucracy established taxes Public Works and Reforestation village commissions established maintain irrigation works reforestation provided for central government for village leaders as part of authority land reclamation mass reforestation 1 billion trees planted in Hong s reign lost of forest due to agriculture ecology and modern preservation happened before modern times Hongwu and Religion origins in Red Turban movement emphasis on divine support for Ming rule Nanking renamed Yingtian In Response to Heaven build up connection between emperor and heaven for authority The Imperial Cult expansion codification of court ceremonial rituals and rights for the emperor himself perform sacrifices for the good of the country o cials now kneel in emperor s presence emperor s performance of annual rites The Yongle Emperor r 1402 24 construction of Forbidden City in Beijing meant to shock and awe of people who see it massive building project create a separate focus for imperial power commoners are not allowed in it expands imperial bureaucracy turns to unix as his o cials of choice establish o ces to control the bureaucrats and unix himself Eastern Depot extralegal police agency investigates state o cial eunuchs Eunuchs in the Imperial Bureaucracy Yongle establishes Directorate of Ceremonial head of all eunuchs oversees eunuch school security imperial library non Chinese castrated and raised in imperial palace China under the Ming 1600 about 231 million people most heavily populated in the world 90 live in the countryside engaged in farming healthy population variolation vs smallpox village commissions invest in public works cleanliness e orts to clean up villages The Village Community markets temples centers for community taxes collected by village village chiefs link between village and central power charged with collecting the tax local leaders of the village serve as middle men between the imperial government and village itself having steady reliable person to go problem is that they can build local power that could be against the central power The Family and Confucianism



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