Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture5 (5 pages)

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Lecture 5 The Mongols Key Terms Genghis Khan Golden Horde Ortaq Yuan Dynasty Sultanate of Delhi Midterm 15 multiple choice questions based on the key terms 2 document IDs based on the readings block of text from one of the primary source who what when where why significance 4 choices for Document IDs pick 2 what to bring 2 882 E Scantrons the narrow green version 1 Blue Books for document IDs Guiding Questions What factors allowed the Mongols to conquer much of Eurasia in only a few decades military superiority broader willingness to adopt skills personnel ideas from conquered peoples taxation religion weaponry What e ect did the Mongol conquests have an Eurasian civilizations the Mongol Empire s vast reach and interest in state controlled commerce facilitated the flow of goods people across Eurasia Mongol Society fully nomadic pastoralists sheep cattle raising large herds of horses sheep and cattle family clans basic unit collection of 6 7 8 families connected through marriage and history come together into a tribal confederacy during times of help larger tribal confederacy in times of war alliance of families Mongol Warfare highly skilled horsemen horse archers lancers large scale coordination of cavalry move over in large distances quickly give them advantage over the empires that rely on the peasant population for their military use of borrowed technology rockets gunpowder good at adopting technology from their enemies let them take over large walled cities Mongol Material Culture circular felt insulated interior carpeted royal yurt highest quality furnishings Persian rugs Chinese paintings diplomacy gift based tribute Yurts The Mongol Confederacy 1206 Chinggis Khan unifies all Mongols at tribal conference kuriltai Chinggis Khan as divinely mandated conqueror be chosen by the sky diety that the sky god has given people to conquer people over the earth surrender or total destruction brutal force heavy taxation complete destruction of the cities when resisting less interested in religious constitution compared to the Crusades 1207 Mongolia from Northern China not absolutely unified between the di erent tribes starts to weaken later in the 14th century due to the lack of unification The Mongols Neighbors Tibetan Kingdom Song Dynasty China Liao Khitan Chinggis Khan s Route to Power marriage alliances with other tribes polygamy easy to cement loyalty from other Mongol tribes woman play importance for alliance within the Mongols warriors join Mongol armies Mongol elite open to useful courageous outsiders values courage honor loyalty keen eye for talent and eye out for useful outsiders how they build up for power everyone has their duty if you re useful for him he s happy to accommodate you within the empire Conquests in Northern China Chinggis Khan conquers Xixia Jin Dynasty northern Chinese states Chinese siege gunpowder experts capital Karakorum tent city Campaigns of the Mongols c 1221 1280 vast scale the the mongols are operating on started attacking the neighbors after Chinggis Khan died toward the sea attacking nearby dynasties and neighbors and sending out long distance expeditions toward enemies across the field shows how they are very eager to conquer over the world The Mongols and the Islamic World Iran conquered 1219 1221 never gave the enemy a break continued to pursue the Persian enemy until there is no empire left keep going after and not wait for retreat cities of central Asia submission or total destruction pyramid of skulls for cities outside to resist bad idea to defy the Mongols during this period scholars technicians enlisted in Mongol service Baghdad 1258 famous example of Mongol brutality army demands surrender The Mongols in Europe Russian principalities conquered 1230s 40s destruction of Polish German Hungarian armies devastation of Hungary attack them since Hungary was providing assistance to the Russians Mongol Invasion of Europe 1237 42 keeps heading westward until they can t go forth anymore keeps pursuing their enemies until death or escape stopped invasion by the death of one of their leaders by their own politics and head back to Mongolia Campaigns in East Asia conquest of Southern Song Dynasty 1279 attacks on Japan 1274 1281 beat them by samurai by the battle on the beach wind defeated the fleet by the kamikaze the divine wind invasions of Burma 1273 Vietnam 1277 expedition to Indonesia 1293 start to depose and set up royal families elsewhere may send diplomats toward the Mongol favorites on other places that they haven t directly conquered yet Mongols keep attacking neighboring people until they run out of steam momentum of the conquest keeps going The 4 Mongol Khanates split into 4 khanates after the death of Chinggis Khan practical way to rule over vast amount of territories to keep track of what is going on The Golden Horde 1240s 1500 rules of Russia western steppe controlled northern routes on the Silk Road protection for Italian Muslim merchants The Pax Mongolica I Commerce mongol peace amount of internal stability able to travel over the empire without any fear of merchants and bad people government protection of trade routes don t have to deal with more customs and tolls more people are on the movement across Asia more overland travelers to China Europe began to receive Chinese technology earlier gunpowder printing press during the 13thcentury Chinese goods tech to the West Ortaqs state run merchant guilds run by Muslim Christian merchants tax collection state supervised internet l exchange caravan investors resented for corruption The Pax Mongolia II Administration local arrangements left in place Mongols Chinggis Khan s family imperial elite heavy taxes military services The Yuan Dynasty 1279 1368 Legal discrimination vs ethnic Han Chinese new o ces censorial secretariat capital moved ot Beijing inherit Chinese postal system The Mongols and Religion religious tolerance di erent approach to religion originally communicate with the supernatural Mongol religion influenced by Tibetan Buddhism Latin Christian emissaries conversion anti Muslim alliance send out to convert the Mongols example of borrowing ideas from their invasions and conquering seem to have taken a dislike in orthodox confusion and suni islam since they were fighting against not theology disagreement but religious conflict occurs due to the enemies religion aspects The Dehli Sultanate one of the new Muslim principalities that successfully resist the Mongol invasion able to


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