Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture6 (4 pages)

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Lecture 6 Plague and Revolt Key Terms cafe Yersinia pestis Prato Ciompi Revolt Red Turbans Questions How did disease reshape society in the fourteenth century recurrent plague cycles destabilized social norms shrank the labor force and contributed to political crises What social conditions and political resentment produced rebellion in 14th century Eurasia reduced population attempts to control labor power peasants worker resentment of social control heavy taxation Little Ice Age c 1300 1700 End of the Medieval Optimal warm period c 900 1300 cold wet summers shorter unreliable growing season last for 300 350 years global cooling agriculture and harder and more unpredictable living in the far north Greenland with vikings became harder and harder to grow any crops di cult northern seas begin to freeze so it s hard people to transport materials toward Greenland Greenland colony abandoned Famine Great Famine Europe 1315 17 strikes almost all of Europe growing season is shortened drought and excessive rain hard to get a good harvest political instability weakening of the population Famines in China 1330s 40s Famine revolt in Iran 1320s 130s Weakened Vulnerable Populations abandonment of marginal lands competition for grain other resources malnourishment encan res danger of plague other diseases The Black Death A Medical Detective Story whether the black death is from the bubonic plague or not eventually proven after gaining DNA from skeletons study from English play pits which are major mass dumps found aDNA from teeth of plague pit corpses to find the causing bacteria Plague yersinia pestis endemic in ground rodents transmitted via fleas lice made fit for the population due to their lack of hygienic in crowded cities forms of plague bubonic pneumonic septicemic Di usion of Plague Bacteria Types from the Mongol empire earliest just voles spreading across the continent red medieval Asian trade routes from the Mongol empire spread the disease to other territories Islamic world was hit severely hit by both waves of the plague traveling through the land and Indian Ocean Ca a Entrepot and Epidemic Flashpoint Europeans first become aware of the trading city of Ca a the disease breaks out by the Golden Hordes army from Mongols in their camps Siege of Ca a 1346 plague arrives via trade routes Golden Horde besieging Genoese It colony plague in Golden Horde s camp bodies flung over walls refugees reach Sicily 1346 by a ghost ship full of dead people rats and rodents traveling with them and begin to spread the disease Contemporary Sources Boccaccio 1313 1375 Florentine author satirist model his account of the plague Decameron novellas short stories told by plague refugees Al Maqrizi 1364 1442 Cairene historian scholar Response to the Plague religious initiatives flagellant societies pious bequests acts of atonement toward God for the sins spike in people making last wills abnormal money given to charities hospitals and churches Anti jewish violence France and Spain looking for the scapegoat and attack them cultural changes Dance of Death skeletons dancing around the grave decorative motif in paintings and tapestries and co ns widespread fascination of death and imperishability of death more concern with death and how to be ready for an early death Plague Cycles 1348 9 1363 Plague of the Children people seeing children dying some survivors of the previous plague died returned frequently enough that you expect to see it again 1372 73 periodic outbreaks into 15th century becomes familiar of the Eurasian landscape opportunistic infections due to the famine experienced later forms of fever flu and other illnesses plague is preceded by bad blows of famine and global cooling making other people exposed to other sickness Prato Tuscany central Italy close neighbor of Florence best sources for understanding the demongraphic of the disease mid sized town well settled densely populated city impact of the plague on Prato 1310 1470 households 72 drop in 1310 4000 in 1325 3400 after 1410 950 stable and they were smaller average in 1298 4 1 people in 1371 3 4 people Age Structure 1371 fewer people over 25 population s age structure unchanged 1427 youths adolescents rare proportion of elderly doubled population decline blamed on immorality Late Fourteenth Century Rebellions English Peasants Rebellion 1381 Florence Ciompi Revolt 1378 China Red Turbans Improved Conditions for Subsistence Farmers English Rebellion of 1381 1381 poll tax rebel program no serfdom no labor services no poll tax Wat Tyler and Richard II king strikes out killing Tyler which is the leader plagues and revolt changed social relations with more tensions Ciompi Revolt Florence 1378 population 1300 c 100 000 fall 1348 35 40 000 1362 70 000 1378 c 50 000 8 11 000 male woolworkers making cheap textiles to neighbors Florence s Cloth Industry large numbers of unskilled laborers middling cloth merchant manufacturers entrepreneurs sell the finished cloth cloth build members the entrepreneurs Comp Program July 1378 graduated taxes and no forced loans lenient treatment of debtors cheaper bread higher wages No Wool Guild authority over their work points of assembly 3 clothworker neighbhoods targets the town hall Wool Guild palace Standardbearer of Justice bells 1 8 The Red Turbans popular religious ideas Buddhism Confucianism millenarian beliefs Resentment vs Mongol impositions Chinese begin to revolt against the Mongols political demands of the resentment hereditary occupations heavy taxes make peasantry try to stay on the land Regional Rebellions Under Warlords rural rebellions in rural China 1350s 1368 peasants goes against the Mongol armies last 1360s looked really bad for the Mongols Red Turbans religious social movement Last Yuan flees to Karakorum 1368 bring the end of the Yuan dynasty Foundation of the Ming Dynasty 1368 Zhu Yuangzhang first ming emperor Hongwu emperor Ex Red Turban regional leader Ming radiance dynasty from 1368 Confucian legitimacy


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