Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture1 (4 pages)

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Lecture 1 Intro World around 1000 CE slow transportation people move around by water sailing farmers usually live near a sea port to ship their goods using transportation of water transportation by land is di cult usually only the elites use horses to transport through the land peasants walk or stay in a place people don t travel around much Hunter Gatherers simple social material conditions technologically and materially simple they are not savages or backwards in civilization their materials in society is simpler than the ones in the cities scarce historical evidence barely any documentation people are probably less oppressed than those living in strong states hard to reconstruct stories of them in the past arctic peoples Australian aborigines live in the far north or far south Russians or other civilizations probably enslave or domesticate over them due to viewpoint of them lesser than human due to the way they live Pastoralists semi nomadic people don t live them if they stay in one place since they conquer over them associate with cattle mobility across large distances extremely mobile due to traveling horses speed demons of the modern world produce a leader that leads to large empires over night ex the Mongols fraught relationship with farmers Nomads and Agrarian Societies cultural other nomads seen as barbarians material and cultural borrowings Nomads Eurasia s Middlemen jeweled belt buckle seen as barbarian if wore it sterrups developed in India or China spread westward due to the middlemen like the huns easier to control the horse so cattle is more important in Islamic and European warfare Steppe Horse Archers Agrarian Societies land sustenance production of food wealth create tax systems surplus of crops goes to the tax men political power key to control the land to get into politics key to social mobility regional staple crops have to produce excess amount of food to maintain wealth and sustenance documentation produced the most documentation since the tax men want to take the most surplus from want to keep track of amount of land and how much the peasants will get easiest to reconstruct due to the amount of documents Wet Rice cultivation in Asia stable crop Rice cultivation in S Asia essential basis for the communities matter of life or death for the Agrarian societies Those who work the land 4 5ths of Europe s population in c 1000 were peasants landlords prevent the peasant workers to achieve independence free unfree tenant cultivators some peasants that are free own their own land and equipment which allow control to what they want to grow some of them are unfree called serfs no legal rights landlord is in charge of justice pretty much at the mercy of the landlords allow to execute peasants that are uprising landlord leant relationships vary by region not chained up like slaves very dependent on their landlords and those who profit from it bureaucratic elites in charge of the administration in charge of documentation for tax charges no military work military warrior elites go kill peasants ex samurai debate between keeping control of the military elites but not in sharing power Gendered Division of Labor males agriculturalists hunters fighters females child rearing domestic economy weaving as a hobby rare that women fight household duties marriage and inheritance control of female bodies essential for women to maintain families and properties preserving wealth property stays in the family rather than out to other societies due to this women have a stricter lifestyle and tightly controlled yes generally speaking for same gender roles across the three groups of societies mostly seen in the agrarian society Cities and Urban Life political admin and ritual centers capitals due to the large population cultural and religious exchange Kaifeng China most populous city in the period Baghdad Iraq population composed of people of the Islamic lands diplomatic missions and traders going into the city isolated world of the country side C rdoba al Andalus Spain Kaifeng China political and economic hub connection between the two rivers able for technological growth and urbanization started as a political center then into an economic center location on the Great Canal iron and steel production 1 000 000 inhabitants C rdoba al Andalus Spain Umayyad Caliphate plumbing and street lighting one of the major urban centers of the period cultural center calligraphic work architecture detail of the palace libraries and copyists translation and production of manuscripts


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