Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 4 - Early India and China (6 pages)

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Lecture 4 - Early India and China



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Lecture 4 Early India and China Ancient Traditions Modern World Mahatma Gandhi the Fourfold Division and Caste 1921 To destroy the caste system and adopt the Western European social system means that Hindus must give up the principle of hereditary occupation which is the soul of the caste system I am opposed to all those who are out to destroy the caste system 1926 In accepting the fourfold division I am simply accepting the laws of Nature results of our past doings followed modern Hinduism Student Protests and the Mandate of heaven Tiananmen Square 1989 how they view appropriated view how we should look at transition between the dynasties of China South Asian Geography river civilizations Pranab Mukherjee current Inditan president monsoon is the real finance minister of India annual monsoons which is the most important is the summer monsoon incredibly important for agriculture and economy coastal trade with Mesopotamia Indus River Valley Saraswati historic river that ran parallel with the Indus river that is important similar to Mesopotamia that there are two rivers running side by side Indus Valley Harappan civilization ca 6000 5000 upland farming ca 3500 movement into river valleys irrigation zebu oxen domestication copper pottery ca 2500 intense urbanization large of settlements and cities writing trade networks between cities and outside other civilization movement of people to establish farming into the river valley in 3500 B C Early Indus Harappan Cities Harappa and Mohenjo Daro city for three miles above the flood plain concerned about flooding central district with surrounding sub towns evidence of urban grid planning aerial view of Mohenjo Daro all houses built at the same structure and uniform large open areas for early trade markets level of urban planning throughout these cities from archeological records rather than the historical records cities that are 50 000 to 60 000 people which large population Hydraulic Technology Latrine sewer drain individual houses have their own bathrooms that collects waste into the drain not seen nowhere else Great Bath at Mohenjo Daro pool of 35 x 25 ft water proofed could have been used for public bath storage or religious reasons Trade may the land Meluhha large boats Enki and Ninhursag the Meluhhaites the men of the black exotic wares cures of Agade lots of text from Mesopotamia that describe the ancient Indians trading with them trading Carnelian for making jewlery there are trade seals Indus Valley Script writing developed as an economic origin for documentation writing developed early on to 27th BC not decipherred guess work and not sure what it is saying 400 ish signs early pictographic ideologies just like Mesopotamia and Egypt have scripts on top and Indian animals below it sense of uniformity of these seals Government and Religion Late Harappan Phase cities begin to be abandoned most deserted by 1700 BCE loss of script ecological theory Aryan invasion theory The Ecological Theory flooding earthquakes drought and drying up shifting of Saraswati River evidence Aristobulus says that when he was sent upon since the country was now above the level 4th century BCE Greek account from Arrian The Aryan Invasion Theory there was an Aryan invasion another group from Indo European popping up everywhere Indo European Aryans Mohenjo Daro skeletons 35 Vedic Hymn to Indra Aryan god of war 12 By whom all things here have been made unstable is Indra color caste Dasa non Aryans in another hymn Indra destroys the hundred walled forts of the Das when did they get there how much did they conquer ecological problems happened first so the Aryans easily invaded them Arrival of the Indo European Aryans from migratory pastoralists to sedentary pastoralists militaristic chariot warfare frequent infighting often over control of cattle or other resources fought each other a lot which is not united politically speaking no writing initially but oral transmission left significant imprint on later literary tradition The Vedas Knowledge Rig Veda 1500 1200 BCE devas Shining Ones Indra war god assisted them in conquering the valley Agni associated with fire fire was important for their religious rights Aryans did not have temples their religious interest pop up around fire connected directly to sacrifices Dyaus Pitar compare him to Zeus father of heavens ritual including familial sacrifice cosmic order calling on ancestors which can also be seen in the Chinese tradition Vedic Religion and Political Social Structure social class varna priests Brahmins warriors chiefs kings Kshatriyas farmers herders merchants Vaisyas agriculture dependent laboreres Sudras excluded in many ways native Indian people that have been conquered twice born relates to the top three classes can take part into ceremony from childhood to adulthood taking part of the religious community or ritual caste Jati kinship occupational group limit people into certain groups incredible lack of social mobility between classes due to political domination and di erent people Vdi India Resistance the Civilization Clock Sedentary Pastoralism ca 1500 1000 BCE small chiefdoms and tribes they don t travel or migrate not that much no evidence of writing limited archaeological evidence due to lack of large settlements State Formation ca 1000 500 BCE expansion into Ganges plain development of iron increasing agricultural capability urban centers near rivers Janapada kingdom named The Later Vedic Tradition The Upanishads first written probably 7th century BCE concepts of Atman individualized self Brahman universal reality eternal truth etc reincarnation and Karma position in next life based upon one s actions in current life The Sanskrit Epics first written 5th c BCE 4th c CE focused on Kshatriya class Ramayana Mahabharata Bhagaved Gita Dharma appropriate conduct virtue duty in accordance with Vedic Hindu later Buddhist religious systems Early China and Geography very isolated due to the geography oldest and longest lived of ancient civilization Neolithic China ca 7000 2000 BC lived along the Yellow and Yangtze River climates of the two are really di erent Yellow is dryer grow losses soil millet wheat Yangtze River is humid climate and more moist rice Late Neolithic China 3000 2000 BCE increasing conflict in the river valleys city walls rammed earth walls headless sacrificial burials at Anyang not friendly Xia Dynasty ca 2000 1750 matching history to archeology which is questionable increasing urbanization and


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