Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 4 - Early India and China (6 pages)

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Lecture 4 - Early India and China



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Lecture 4 Early India and China Ancient Traditions Modern World Mahatma Gandhi the Fourfold Division and Caste 1921 To destroy the caste system and adopt the Western European social system means that Hindus must give up the principle of hereditary occupation which is the soul of the caste system I am opposed to all those who are out to destroy the caste system 1926 In accepting the fourfold division I am simply accepting the laws of Nature results of our past doings followed modern Hinduism Student Protests and the Mandate of heaven Tiananmen Square 1989 how they view appropriated view how we should look at transition between the dynasties of China South Asian Geography river civilizations Pranab Mukherjee current Inditan president monsoon is the real finance minister of India annual monsoons which is the most important is the summer monsoon incredibly important for agriculture and economy coastal trade with Mesopotamia Indus River Valley Saraswati historic river that ran parallel with the Indus river that is important similar to Mesopotamia that there are two rivers running side by side Indus Valley Harappan civilization ca 6000 5000 upland farming ca 3500 movement into river valleys irrigation zebu oxen domestication copper pottery ca 2500 intense urbanization large of settlements and cities writing trade networks between cities and outside other civilization movement of people to establish farming into the river valley in 3500 B C Early Indus Harappan Cities Harappa and Mohenjo Daro city for three miles above the flood plain concerned about flooding central district with surrounding sub towns evidence of urban grid planning aerial view of Mohenjo Daro all houses built at the same structure and uniform large open areas for early trade markets level of urban planning throughout these cities from archeological records rather than the historical records cities that are 50 000 to 60 000 people which large population Hydraulic Technology Latrine sewer drain individual houses have their own bathrooms that collects waste into the drain not seen nowhere else Great Bath at Mohenjo Daro pool of 35 x 25 ft water proofed could have been used for public bath storage or religious reasons Trade may the land Meluhha large boats Enki and Ninhursag the Meluhhaites the men of the black exotic wares cures of Agade lots of text from Mesopotamia that describe the ancient Indians trading with them trading Carnelian for making jewlery there are trade seals Indus Valley Script writing developed as an economic origin for documentation writing developed early on to 27th BC not decipherred guess work and not sure what it is saying 400 ish signs early pictographic ideologies just like Mesopotamia and Egypt have scripts on top and Indian animals below it sense of uniformity of these seals Government and Religion Late Harappan Phase cities begin to be abandoned most deserted by 1700 BCE loss of script ecological theory Aryan invasion theory The Ecological Theory flooding



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