Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 9 - The Roman Monarchy and Republic (9 pages)

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Lecture 9 - The Roman Monarchy and Republic



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Lecture 9 - The Roman Monarchy and Republic

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9
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
History 2 - Comparative World History
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Lecture 9 The Monarchy and Republic Lecture Chronology 753 509 BCE Roman Monarchy 509 27 BCE Roman Republic 264 146 BCE Punic Wars 133 122 BCE Agrarian reforms of the Gracchi 88 87 BCE Civil War between Marius and Sulla 60 53 BCE First Triumvirate 44 BCE Julius Caesar assassinated 43 33 BCE Second Triumvirate 31 BCE Battle of Actium Lecture Questions What factors played a role in Roman expansion How did Roman expansion lead to further problems during the late Republic What role did strong men play in the problems of the late Republic The Mediterranean World ca 750 BCE Rome s early village was established Greek city states expanded by the 8th century North Africa Sicily Greek Peninsula competing the land against the Phinesians Carthage Pinesian colony note that Rome is between Etruria and Naples access with the coast with the Tigris river Roman Origins A Diverse People Aeneas Virgil s Aeneid 1st BCE figure of the Trojan War 12th century BCE Rome emerged after this ancestor of the Roman kings Romulus and Remus Livy s Roman History 1st c BCE twins story of finding the city under threat of a medieval king set out infants to die saved by she wolf who nurtured them to adulthood once grown up they found the Rome city Romulus killed Remus Rome have no problem saying that they are immigrants or outsiders abduction of the Sabine women Roman men goes to the Sabine tribe steal the women from the Sabine women accept the fact that they are abducted that they are the first Roman wives shows the mixing of outsiders from Rome Historical Rome trace huts from the hills Aventine Hill Capitoline Hill Caelian Hill Esquiline Hill Palatine Hill Quirinal Hill Viminal Hill access to the Tiberis River fertile plains had potential for agriculture but not seen as a major city Important Neighbors Magna Gracie Great Greece what Romans borrowed religion political systems and citizenship literature later etc Etruscans far more advanced than the Romans what Romans borrowed urban panning divination animal fasces bundle of Reeds with an axe tied against it carried around by the Roman kings symbols kings ability to take a life capital punishment unity of many people and things borrowed during the modern times of Mussolini writing borrowed from the Greeks not deciphered yet proto gladiatorial fighting funerals of slaves fighting each other etc outsiders either from Greece or western Anatolia Roman Kingdom 753 509 BCE 7 kings first 3 were Etruscan military judicial legislative authority chief priest pontifex maximus infrastructure and institutions major sewage system drain swamp regions of the hills of Rome Cloaca Maxima Circus Maximus track for chariot racing built city walls religious rights for the cities games census ability to organize Roman Values patria potestas power of the father father is the head legal power over the wife and children power over life and death over wife and children can legally kill them for various o enses mos maioria ancestral custom valued certain stability and industriousness with their ancestors Romanitas Romanness manliness with the Roman view of things someone who demonstrated the moral virtue of the Romans show type of seriousness with everyday interaction with others religious piety example rustic farmer goes back to their origins of the low level secretary farming End of the Monarchy Sextus Tarquinius and Lucretia Sextus son of the king roman celebrating the virtues of the his wife Lucretia get into a drunk debate of which wife is more virtuous allows Sextus to sleep with her to avoid the blackmail of getting the face of a slave killed next to her told L Junius Brutus about this he told her that she has to kill Sextus but ends up killing herself Lucretia is an ideal woman since she killed herself Brutus kills Sextus push o the throne builds a great fear despise the order of kingship Roman Republic 509 ca 30 BCE res privata private thing res public public thing must be shared by all disdain toward kingship division of powers 2 consuls annual terms 1 year terms serve as generals during wartime present problems to the senate senate 100 300 elders foreign a airs made up of elites popular assemblies more or less power depending on the people responsible for voting people into o ce able to decide on going to war advised by the Senate Conflict of the Orders in the Early Republic Pleb Secessions or Strikes leave the city working class getting things done in the city significant economic impact XII Tables 450 BCE victories of the Pleb Rome s early law code Licino Sextian law one Consul must be Plebian 367 BCE Plebeian o ce of Tribune 300ish BCE Tribune associated with military a airs developed this o ce due to veto power power to throw out the idea Plebescites and Hortensian Law 287 BCE Plebian council pushed up to the Senate as a law council able to issue law based on the perspective of the Plebian that doesn t need the Senate approval overall Plebeians get power over Rome Italy under Roman Rule Gauls sack Rome 390 BCE vae victis woe to the vanquished brought awareness toward the Romans to start defending themselves not wanting this to happen again expansion full time conquest of the Roman Italian groupings and the Greek boot of Italy over the next century fall under Roman rule defensive aggression vs aristocratic ambition start seeing more and more triumphs Methods of Control military colonies send out to establish colonies that are not conquered put Roman footprint over the lands expanding road networks connecting the places back to the Rome easier transportation of militaries give elites citizenship recognize certain rights for people that are not Roman give people Latin rights to celebrate the Roman rule 268 Italy under Roman control Punic Wars 264 146 BCE Antigonids vs Seleukids vs Ptolemies vs Rome vs Carthage war that established Rome as the Mediterranean power Rome is keeping an eye on Sicily conflict that emerged in Syracuse Syracuse called Carthage and Rome for help the conflict Carthage established the footprint on the eastern Sicily conflict happened on Sicily naval battles Rome had a significant disadvantage due to the lack of naval military Rome conquered Sicily by 240 BCE 1st Punic War The Second Punic War 218 202 BCE origins begin conflicts in Spain Hannibal s success broke the treaty took over the wealthy city of Saguntum long standing hatred of the Romans due to his father losing the 1st war to the Romans brings his army which includes 40 war African elephants across


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