Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 6 - The Age of Empires in Near East (7 pages)

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Lecture 6 - The Age of Empires in Near East



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Lecture 6 - The Age of Empires in Near East

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7
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
History 2 - Comparative World History
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Lecture 6 The Age of Empires in the Near East From the Assyrians to the Achaemenid Persians Chronology 1350 612 BCE 612 539 BCE 586 539 BCE 539 330 BCE Neo Assyrian Empire Neo Babylonian Empire Babylonian Captivity of the Jews Achaemenid Persian Empire Exam 1 lecture 1 5 reading 1 4 Lecture Questions What methods did these empires employ to establish and maintain power over nonnative subjects What role did religion play in imperial ideology and royal legitimization How did the Near Eastern empires impact the early history of the Hebrew Israelite people First International System vs Near Eastern Age of Empires Assyrians Neo Babylonians Achaemenid Persians first international system next level complexity in terms of political and economic interaction based upon existence of multiple states of relatively equal power ended by late bronze age crisis creating power vacuum in Easter Mediterranean near eastern age of empires next level complexity in terms of maintaining control over subject peoples communication networks governing structures professional armies origins in power vacuum created by late bronze age crisis heavy borrowing from earlier Mesopotamian traditions such as imperial trade The Shah of Iran at Persepolis 1971 25000 year celebration invited presidents prime ministers and kings and queens all over the world to celebrate this had banquet lasted for 5 and half hours focused in ancient document Cryrus cylinder recognized of ancient declaration of human rights respect all traditions and customs and never let down of nation abolish slavery and prohibit exchange of humans penalize the oppressors freedom of religion choose any job that doesn t violate any rights The Late Bronze Age Crisis and The Rise of Assyria not new comers from new age crisis early history inhibited in the northern tigris region bronze age regional conflict successful defense of borders fit into the first international system successful in fighting against invaders fought of Phrygians Who Are the Assyrians semitic speaking group had their own cuneiform war god ashur relationship with the kings like other traditions warrior society culture of warfare have law codes from the Assyrians interest in not allowing women to have legal rights women forced to wear veils harsh penalty to homosexuality and abortion try to maintain a large military from regional kingdom to imperial power around 1100 BCE see more into the 9th century The Assyrian War Machine professional standing army very famous since they are depicted on walls iron used it for weaponery everyone has iron weapons not native to Mesopotamian Assyrians begin pushing out to other nations to acquire iron first army to use cavalry and mounted archers there is no sattle and go on bareback LMAO siege warfare group of individuals supposed to dig up city walls so the walls can collapse to break down borders siege towers to get up to the city walls terror and submission basically used terror tactics when a city is rebels looted and destroyed temples nasty reputation for torturing people city make decision to just give up and surrender to submit to Assyrian nation if they don t fight nothing happens and safety The Assyrians and The Israelites Part I The Israelites and the Late Bronze Age Crisis came into the Philistines engaged in fighting with the Philistines The Early Israelite Kings Saul probably 10th c BCE in Hebrew Bible first king Soloman building great temple of Israel David fought Philistine warrior Goliath evidence for a powerful Israelite Kingdom Tel Dan Stele declaring victory over the king and ally in the House of David Judo of Israel dated back to 840 Mesha Stele 9th c BCE Moab king celebrating victory of Israel The Assyrians and The Israelites Part II attempt to unify in defense against Assyrians Tiglath Pileser III s professional army conquered the northern kingdom of Israel in 750 BCE lost tribes of israel from the Hebrew Bible deportation of people living there Prism multiple copies of Sennacherib 7th c BCE at Ninevah bragging that he took 46 siddials and deporting over 200 000 people in the kingdom of Judah The Assyrian Empire at Its Zenith 7th C BCE took control of Egypt world s largest empire Assyrian Kingship King of Kings King of the Four Corners of the World Assyrian king and the tree of life kings being granted control over the natural world provide the balance of the natural world Ashur with the king of life Assyrian king killing lion in hunt depictions of kings killing animals idea of king being responsible of taming the savage world Jehu of Israel pays tribute to Shalmaneser III circa 840 BC idea of imperialism how the king is responsible to stretch its borders Method of Control regional governors for imperial regions had dynastic squabbles made regional governors and appointed someone in their lifetime no generations more responsibility to the king so they don t establish power deportation if you move people away from their native environment make them less likely rebel assimilation join Assyrian culture so they can stay with their native land vassal states a state that maintain native political ruler and structure and many freedom but they answer the political direction of the Assyrians tributes to the Assyrians allows Assyrians to basically have someone else deal with their enemies on the frontiers Messenger and Road Service letters that demonstrate high level communication between king and governors Table from Nimrud Letters see constructional forces rebellions in the Nimrud Letters The Great Irony reputation of military and imperialism culture Aramaic new international language of Near East diplomacy Ashurbanipal s Library at Ninevah last and most successful of Assyrian kings put out imperial decree demanding that he get significant texts in the middle of Ninevah first library over 22 000 clay tablets almost every literary works from Mesopotamia Epic of Gilgamesh in Assyrian Cuneiform The Failure of the Assyrians over extension did not last beyond the 7th century resentment of conquered peoples taxed heavily due to the maintenance of the professional army rebellion by multiple peoples cities destroyed Inscription of Naboplassar when searching about the assyrian cities you can t find any of them show how much the cities are destroyed level of destruction and hatred Neo Babylonian Empire 612 539 another group that claim the heritage of the Babylonian native to southern mesopotamia claim a large part of mesopotamia after they


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