Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture4 (5 pages)

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Lecture 3 Society and Culture in the Americas Mexico and the Missisippi Valley Key Terms Watson Brake Three Sisters Monks Mound chinampas Aztl n Tenochtitl n Guiding Questions What conditions produced monumental building and early cities in North America culture environment religion social needs and suitable ecological conditions How did Mesoamerican civilizations overcome technological limitations in creating complex states Fusion of religious political to centralize exploit human labor power America s Native Peoples The Mound Builders and Cahokia Watson Brake LA built c 5400 5000 years ago earliest known mounds no written documentation no burials or materials that let us learn more about these people midden heaps wild vegetables animal bones remains of fruits harvested garbage can t say much people lived there besides feasting hunting and gathering Watson Brake s Significance pre agrarian pre ceramic hunter gathers NOT farmers coordinated labor not a permanent settlement pre date the Pyramids Mesoamerican civilizations making historians reconsider what hunter gather societies were capable of no evidence of permanent habitation not an early city or town people did built these mounds and come back to them and make additions to them over the centuries long term value theories mounds intended as territorial markers from one hunting group to another religious and ritual significance Poverty Point LA c 1700 1100 BE builders pre agricult l mass coordination of labor trade network Soapstone GA ore MA site for long distance exchange across the American southeast in modern Louisiana Why Build the Mounds not permanent settlement not burial mounds flood protection built close to major rivers that flood often trying to protect themselves from religious places due to flood damage annual assembly points territorial markers North America s Agrarian Transition Medieval Optimal global warming period 900 1350 led to the agricultural transition agriculture spreads across eastern N America humans can grow more further north expand and gained and domesticate crops knowledge of trade routes due to short growing seasons The Three Sisters squash maize beans 1 kernel of maize 200 kernels per harvest wheat 15 kernels per seed combined with animal proteins very nutritious diet vegetables work together and prevent weeds easy to grow and less labor nutritiously better profit continued sending out hunting combination create a healthy diet Agriculture and Gender Roles 3 sisters core food sources don t ruin the soil dealt with fairly limited agrarian supply farming household female kin groups seasonal hunting camps forest gendered as male females have more power politically and structurally from other places which creates a dual power structure for men The Mississippian Cultural Archipelageo refers of similar agriculture practices large mounds go together with the cultivation of the three sisters switch to settled life agrarian technology and social interactions spread Chaokia



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