Berkeley HISTORY 2 - lecture7 (5 pages)

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Lecture 7 Early Modern Land Empires Key Terms Janissaries Suleiman the Magnificent Ivan the Terrible St Petersburg Akbar Rajah Guiding Questions How did these empires rulers project power to their subjects rulers expanded upon older cultural traditions Byzantium Persia the caliphate to legitimize themselves and used monumental building to glorify imperial centers What problems and threats conditioned these empires development across the early modern period c 1450 1700 ongoing warfare and internal threats frontier warfare disloyal elites were stimuli to autocratic centralization The Ottoman Empire The Turks in Anatolia 1100 1400 Turkish settlement of Anatolia Asia Minor divided into warring principalities Gradual Islamization Turkicization of Anatolia Anatolia around 1300 Turkish principalities overtaking Anatolia Turkish won the battle between the Byzantine Empire able to expand Turkish principalities across Anatolia Byzantium and the Early Ottomans Ghazi tradition holy warriors on Islam s frontiers Byzantines weakened by Latin occupation 1204 1261 civil wars occupied by the Crusaders during the 4th Crusades never able to recover from the blow Latin Christians forced them to unify them under the Pope s control able to expand across what was the Byzantine Empire able to do it due to the Black Plague 1354 Ottomans enter Europe first city Ottomans empire begin to expand into Europe The Conquest of Constantinople 1453 Mehmed II The Conqueror successful use of cannon vs city s land walls walls built during 1400s by the Romans Constantine XI dies in battle Ottoman Expansion 1 Europe conquest of the Balkans Danube region 14th 15th centuries threat on the European rulers no Christian empires can t stand up against them 2 sieges of Vienna 1529 1689 Domination of Eastern Mediterranean raid costal towns destabilize shipping and trading commerce Ottoman Expansion 2 The Near East Conquest of Mamluk Empire Syria and Egypt 1516 17 territories gained in short amount of time draft the locals in the army draft local peasants into force labor make use of human resources suzerainty over Crimea Black Sea region ongoing wars with Safavid Persia sponsors pirate kingdoms in North Africa puppet states send to overtake the Italian islands and Spain Mediterranean economic system is destabilized Ottoman Government inherits Byzantine administration tax system centralized palace based bureaucracy use of eunuchs as administrators troubleshooters Janissaries Christians conscripted in childhood taken into Constantinople for military education able to rely them upon to not rebel and be e ective in battle elite shook infantry peacekeepers recruited from Christian areas of the empire powerful faction in Ottoman politics important block of modernization and reform important Ottoman power elite how the Ottomans run their empire Suleiman the Magnificent r 1520 66 expands empire in Mesopotamia Europe known as Kanuna the lawgiver reform of secular sharia law public works increased number of primary schools interest in education passes several law increasing them tried to establish more schools in the provinces tried to build an educated elite in the reform does his best to fight against the religious conflict send out Ottomans to over take Iran Ottoman Public Building Islamization of Constantinople take a city that had predominately Christain making it into an Islamic city Sultan as benefactor charitable acts establishing use and public buildings hospitals mosques waterworks public foundations baths example of how despite Ottomans concentrate their territories they were engaged in caring for the nation with public acts public markets bazaars souks Hagia Sofia Istanbul built by Justinian central cathedral church for the Orthodox Christians cover up Christian beliefs put down caligpaphical works by the Ottomans The Sulemaniye Mosque Istanbul design is working parallel with the Hagia Sofia create a mask from the beginning of the Turkish foundation transforming the public face of their capital Constantinople became Istanbul after the conquest Erdogan and Neo Ottomanism Early Tsarist Russia The Expansion of Muscovy The Rise of Muscovy origin minor trading outpost in north Russia forest early rulers subject to Golden Horde expansion to south southwest rulers try to make a bu er zone leading to their expansion protecting themselves from invasions from the east The Byzantine Inheritance Ivan III marries niece of Constantine XI last Byzantine Emperor Moscow the Third Rome Ivan III Tsar of all the Rus imperial power over all the Russian principalities Ivan the Terrible r 1547 1584 conquers neighboring khanates secret police oprichnina charged with political crimes savage repression of nobles boyars Massacre of Novgorod willingness to use massacre to keep people in line 6 7 thousand people of the city St Basil s cathedral centralizing the state and rule out any disloyalty St Basil s Cathedral Moscow 1555 61 built quickly victory over the Kashan worried about being outclassed and beaten with Stalin and Ivan the Terrible Stalin saw himself as a modern day successor of the Soviet Union following Ivan the Terrible identified himself with this ruthlessness Stalin man of steel Peter the Great and Westnization travels throughout Europe 1697 98 selective westernization technology science do this to be able to compete with the west acquire western ideas and technology no interest of introducing the liberal arts focus on this selection to modernization for strength of the state not aiming for a democracy Royal Academy founded 1724 forcible changes in fashion for the boyars to change their appearance evidence of modernization from Peter St Petersburg founded by Peter the Great 1703 built by conscripted peasant labor becomes capital of the empire 1709 Russia s Window on the West considered as western capital for the modernization moving the capital to here from Moscow to reduce the backwardness that is holding them back such as having ideals during the Mongol era Babur and the Mughals Dynasty s founder Babur descendant of Timur Chagatai Khanate defeats last sultan occupies Delhi 1525 autobiography Baburnama account of his conquest of Dehli Iranian tradition of luxurious rulers drawing on Iranian influence on the Sultanate of Delhi heavily influenced by Iran culture The Mughal Empire 16th 18th Centuries bring most of India under their control The Mughal Dynasty Persian influences cultural administrative political Safavid support 1550s use of


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