Berkeley HISTORY 2 - Lecture 5 - The First International System (7 pages)

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Lecture 5 - The First International System



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Lecture 5 - The First International System

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Pages:
7
School:
University of California, Berkeley
Course:
History 2 - Comparative World History
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Lecture 5 The First International System Chronology 2000 BCE 1550 1069 BCE 1900 1400 BCE 1600 1178 BCE Indo Europeans arrive in Anatolia modern Turkey and Greece Egyptian New Kingdom Minoan Palatial Periods Crete Hittite Era Lecture Questions What made the First International System di erent from earlier periods of interaction between civiliziations Do the Iliad and the Hebrew Bible Christian Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh fit into the general historical picture of this period What role The Eastern Mediterranean Mid 2nd Millennium BCE interaction advanced and frequent trade routes diplomacy between the kings of the civilizations Egypt advancing their borders in their new kingdom reached lower cataract of the Nile increasingly frequent contact with the Hittite Kingdom Indo European Greeks New Kingdom Egypt The Ramesside Period 1292 1069 BCE 19th and 20th dynasties multiple pharaohs with name Ramesses Ramesses II r 1279 1213 BCE most successful fought battle of the Kadesh pushed further north and south of the borders fatherly productivity wound up over 100 children have various claims to the throne monumental architectural buildings Abu Simbel later problems increasing power struggle with the priesthood invasion of foreign people environmental problems flood failed them famine towards the end of the kingdom The Hittites ca 1650 1200 Indo Europeans in Anatolia there are other groups in Anatolia modern Turkey most successful due to chariots and ironed weapons Chariots iron weapons reasons why this group have military advantage to everyone they fight against Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom 1650 1380 dynastic problems prevented them from expanding their borders New Kingdom Empire ca 1380 1200 greatest successful against the Egyptians unified Hittite kingdom Hittite Writing Religion and Kingship borrowed Hittite cuneiform script from Mesopotamia Indo European Religion have gods that controlled over the world di erentiation of generations of gods Hittite Kingship and Religion May the Tabarna the king the borders of Hattusa kings have close connection with the religion king is managing the land in the protection of the gods The Minoan Palatial Periods 1900 1450 BCE Minos Island Empire Minos might be a king but not know for sure Origins don t know much start running DNA tests 3 years ago they are from European arrived on 5000 BC palatial centers Palace at Knossos very sizable up to 1500 people had primiative plumbing palaces are linked together Traders of the Aegean palaces linked for trading centers trade with Egypt and Lebanon Minoan Writing Politics and Religion Cretan Hieroglyphic and Linear A similar situation in Egypt have decipher any of them Political Rule Redistributive economy workships happening in the palaces international traders producing goods at the palaces naturalistic religion Snake Goddess Priestess female in charge of religion issue of bull leaping Minoan Bull leaping fresco don t know the meaning of the writing Another Indo European Intrusion dramatic change on Crete depiction of chariot intrusion of Indo Europeans change of script Linear A to Linear B starting seeing horses and chariots depicted people had the technology that invaded them Mycenaean Greeks 1600 1100 BCE Indo European not the Classical Greek city states much earlier groups of states see citadels across the greeks citadels and minor kings The Mycenaean Source Problem Limit of Linear B Documents long lists of trade goods food storages and list of people usage of later greek sources esp Iliad and Odyssey written 7th 6th c BCE most of our evidence are from the later ages historical representation and dangers of popular subject because it s so popular people are searching the sites from the Iliad and Odyssey using them so intently despite the lack of the historical truth wind up with situation of mixup of source problems example of Mask of Agamen International Conflict see the diplomacy fighting each other occasionally fine with taking weaker spots near them an undercurrent of conflict Mycenaean Expansions military powerful nation taking over smaller and weaker ones balance between equals Battle of Kadesh between Hittites vs Egyptians battle of the equals ca 1275 BC largest chariot battle 2500 chariots from each sides Egyptians borrowed the chariots from the Hikos both kings claimed the victory peace treaty in the afterwards not a significant victory International Diplomacy Negotiating Between Equals Hittite Egyptian Treaty Amarna Akhetaten Letters recall Akhenaten Amenhotep IV build to worship the Akhetaten letters to the kings to the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean 14th century BC international language of diplomacy Akkadian cuneiform diplomatic requests asking for a number of di erent things financial resources of some type food military aid lots of gift exchanges symbolic or financial purposes royal marriages trying to establish alliance between two kingdoms International Trade established trade routes Ulu Burrun shipwreck an o cial ship demonstrated that people are closely connected trading valued goods enormous copper ingots used to make bronze used to make weapons The Ulu Burun Finds Mycenaean swords Canaanite glass ingots scarab of Queen Nefertiti Babylonaian cylinder seal represent from ten di erent places hippo and elephant tusks ostrich eggs cedar logs copper tin they are elite traders or ambassadors that did meet with high level Egyptian o cials represent the complexity of trade think that the kings are very invovled in the trade as well as other kings of ancient civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean Iliad and Hebrew Bible as Texts of Late Bronze Age Interaction not written from the 2nd millennium BC written 500 700 years later how authors are interacting with neighboring people The Iliad decipts the trojan war 1200 BC written around 7th century BC long war tradition before that important for people how to act in the Greco Roman world Hebrew Bible slightly later 6th century 5th century goes back to the beginnings of the world sense of the world that it is portraying Iliad Finding Troy doesn t describe the destruction of Troy war between Greeks and people known as the Trojans most historians throw away the romantic element have a site for Troy the Archaeological Site of Troy or Hissarlik continuation all the way to 500 BC see several layers of Troy not that big of a layer evidence of fire skeleton left out of the streets city is destroyed The Ancient Evidence for a Trojan War


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