UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Biodiversity (2 pages)

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Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
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Zoology101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Species interactions continued 2 Niche Lecture 41 Current Lecture 1 Community ecology 2 Diversity Community Ecology Food webs What controls primary production growth of plants and algae Nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus grazing by zooplankton Trophic cascades indirect effect of top predators on lower trophic levels Species with a large impact Dominant species exert some level of control over the occurrence and distribution of other species most abundant or have highest biomass Keystone species in contrast to dominant species keystone species are not necessarily most abundant in a community ecosystem engineers influence other species by physically altering environment General point food webs species interactions trophic cascades all emphasize connections networks among species both direct and indirect unexpected and expected Diversity Biodiversity variety of all life forms all different plants animals microbs their genes and ecosystems in which they are a part of Species richness total number of species in a given community Evenness distribution of individuals among the different species Patterns of species diversity habitat size species area curves Poles tropics Biodiversity crisis current rates of extinction are unusually high humans increased extinction rate by 1000 times 10 30 of mammels birds and amphibian species threatened with extinction Mutational Meltdown and the extinction vortex positive feedback system small populations tend to get even smaller can intervention help stop the meltdown Yes in some cases genetic rescue in small populations Causes for modern extinction habitat destruction loss fragmentation Introduced species Overexploitation Introduced exotic species species introduced to an area outside of their native range invaders can alter habitat directly reduced displace native species competition predation alter ecosystem services

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