UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Why are there so many kinds of organisms? (2 pages)

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Why are there so many kinds of organisms?



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Why are there so many kinds of organisms?

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Lecture number:
33
Pages:
2
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Course:
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
Edition:
1
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Zoology101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline Lecture 33 1 Behaviors and Learning 2 Mating Systems Current lecture 1 Why are there so many kinds of organisms 2 Process of evolution by natural selection Why are there so many kinds of organisms Many different variations different species classifications and mechanisms for creating and maintaining variation Geological evidence fossil records organisms change Earth 4 6 billion years old biological life 3 5 billion years old People and contributions Linnaus classifications Lamarck species can change inheritance of acquired characteristics Mathus population limits Hutton Gradual geological change Lyell modern geology Darwin and Wallace natural selection Both Darwin and Wallace notice there are many different species fossils of species that resemble current species Geographical gradients of change in a species island species resemble main land counterparts in in different yet important ways Organisms seem to have traits that match the conditions of their environment Adaptations inherited characteristics of an organism that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments Darwin s two key points Descent with modification Change of a species in time can arise due to natural selection Species today are descended from ancestral species that have changed in time Process of evolution by natural selection 4 observations individuals in a population vary in their traits those traits are heritable parents to offspring Organisms capable of producing more offspring than environment can support As a result many offspring don t survive 2 inferences individuals that are well suited to their environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals Over time favorable traits accumulate in the population ex insecticide resistance Evidence for natural selection and descent with modification Artificial selection by controlling survival and reproduction dramatic change can occur in a short period of time domesticated



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