UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Speciation and Macroevolution (2 pages)

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Speciation and Macroevolution



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Speciation and Macroevolution

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Lecture number:
36
Pages:
2
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Course:
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
Edition:
1
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Zoology101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Conservation 2 Sexual selection Lecture 36 Current Lecture 1 Evolutionary trap 2 Speciation and Macroevolution Evolutionary Trap An organism uses particular set of cues in order to make a choice Cue produces information presumably associated with a particular outcome successful reproduction Speciation and Macroevolution What is speciation Evolution of a new species Macroevolution evolutionary change above the species level the evolutionary components of speciation Microevolution change in allele frequency in a local population in time What is a species Not simple to define Biological species concept individuals are members of the same species if they are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring BSC often used but may not work in all cases Asexually reproducing species Ecological species concept Niches Morphological species concept Similar size and shape same species Reproductive isolation key component of BSC the existence of biological factors reproductive behaviors that prevent 2 individuals from interbreeding and producing a viable offspring a single barrier may not necessarily lead to reproductive isolation many barriers act in concert Zygote fusion of sperm and egg Barriers can be prezygotic or post zygotic pre preventing mating prevent fertilization mechanical isolation mating may be attempted but prevented by morphological differences gametic sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species Post anything after the zygote has formed reduced hybrid viability offspring don t survive well Hybrid breakdown hybrids are nonviable or sterile in subsequent generation Speciation occurs in 2 ways Allopatric geographic separation of population rivers islands Divergence greatly reduced gene flow genetic drift founder effect Natural selection Sympatric Not covered in class yet



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