UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Prokaryotic Cells and Microbiomes (2 pages)

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Prokaryotic Cells and Microbiomes

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Prokaryotic Cells and Microbiomes


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University of Wisconsin, Madison
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
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Zoology 101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Simple Diffusion 2 Facilitated diffusion Channel Proteins Carrier proteins 3 Osmosis 4 Active Transport 5 Vesicular Bulk Transport Current Outline 1 Prokaryotic Cell Structure Human Microbiome 2 Intestinal Gut Microbiome Mice 3 Development Structure 4 Protective Function Quorem Sensing Lecture 6 Prokaryotic Cell Structure Plasma membrane cystol chromosome usually circular in nucleoid region cell wall contains peptidoglycan flagellum movement of cell ribosomes site of protein synthesis Human Microbiome all micro organisms that live in and on us fungi protazoan archea bacteria very vast diverse commensal one organism benefits while the other has no effect nonpathogenic bacteria Human Microbiome Project sequence DNA from all microbe species living in on body difficult to study Abundance anerobic intestinal microbiome 16s ribosomal RNA gene What have we found out Start accumulating microbiome at birth No two people share the same microbiome most people share a core complement of commensals important in human health and disease Long way to go Intestinal Gut Microbiome metabolic functions Vitamin synthesis fermentation digestion absorption of nutrients Structural functions development of digestive system protective function competitive with pathogens 4 predominate species Mouse is a model organism non human species used to understand biological phenomena with expectation that discovers will provide insight in to workings of other organisms Share common ancestor learn in mice the ratio of bacteriodetes to firmicules leads to weight gain Hypothesis bacteria from phylum Firmicutes plays key role in promoting absorption of fat from food microbes can promote absorption of dietary fats in ingestion and their subsequent can be metabolized Development Structure Hypothesis bacteria presiding in intestine shape gut developmental Experiment sterile environment lead to abnormal gut and function general microbial factor influences gut

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