UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - sleep (2 pages)

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Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
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Zoology 101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Conduction of action potentials 2 Synapses Lecture 25 Current lecture 1 Brain and the effect of Sleep 2 Movie notes Brain and the effect of sleep Brain stem critical for function midbrain pons medulla oblengota Evolutionary conserved same across species due to similar heart beat breathing digestion and sleep functions Reticular formation controls arousal and sleep by filtering sensory information input from touch pain temperature and nerves from ears Sleep is essential active process Maintenance repair resortation genes important for neuron maintenance are expressed in sleep in birds and rodents Model organisms Learning and memory consolidation helps memories stick strongest for procedural tasks Sleep leaves animals vulnerable aquatic animals must sleep and breathe all animals must avoid predation unihemisphere sleep half of brain awake while other half is asleep recorded by EEG Low frequency characterize sleep high frequency wakefulness Impacts blood sugar levels pancreas affect metabolism regulating fuel levels alpha cells glucagon peptide hormone increases glucose levels Beta cells insulin peptide hormone lowers blood glucose leves Negative feedback counteracts initial change primary mechanism of homeostasis Positive feedback amplifies change low blood glucose levels alpha release glucagon and sent to liver liver breaks it down into glucose and sends it out High blood glucose beta release insulin cells take in more glucose blood glucose goes down or liver takes it in and stores it In sleep deprivation body response to high glucose levels resemble insulin resistance precursor to diabetes Diabetes Body doesn t produce or properly use insulin high blood sugar type one beta cells destroyed by immune system no insulin made injection Type two need abnormally high levels of insulin Beta cells can t meet demand receptors down regulated linked to obesity treatment well balanced diet and exercise Appetite leptin is an

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