UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Population Structure (2 pages)

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Population Structure

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Population Structure


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University of Wisconsin, Madison
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
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Zoology 101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Ecology 2 Dispersal and Distributions 3 Population Ecology Lecture 39 Current Lecture 1 Population structure 2 Species interactions Population Structure Characteristics of interest Demography study of population attributes and how they change over time Composition of populations Rates that describe population change Population structure Sex ratio number of males to number of females Age Structure percent of individuals in different age groups in a population too young pre reproduction Reproduction post reproduction Graphs Urn shaped few kids many parents more seniors Non growing or declining population Pyramid lots of kids some parents fewer seniors Rapidly growing population Bell shaped some kids more parents few seniors Slow non growing population Population Rates Birth rate number of births per population size fertility rate number of offspring unit of time generation time Death rate number of deaths per population size survivorship Generation time amount of time between birth of an individual and the birth of its offspring Survivorship cohort group of individuals born at the same time Survivorship tracks changes in the number of individuals in a cohort over time survivorship curve Type1 Low death rate in early and middle life increases in older age groups humans Type 2 death rate constant chipmunk Type3 High death rate in early lower death rate for survivors snails clams Rate of increase r r birth rate death rate r ignores immigration and emigration model of exponential growth dN dt r max N N Number of individuals in a population t time Rate of increase r determines speed at which population size increases as population size increase resources can become limited Population are not always ideal in other ways disturbance predators catastrophe Controls on Population size density independent controls doesn t depend on population natural disasters Density dependent controls depends on population size prey that die when a predator is around Some populations will increase and then level off logistic growth carrying capacity k point of population stabilization dN dt rN K N K Species Interactions Intraspecific interactions occurs within a species Interspecific interactions occurs between 2 or more species Predation Symbiosis Competition Predation Carnivory herbivory For case of herbivory prey does not always have to die Defenses against predators Remarkable diversity of predator defense adaptations likely and evolutionary force Coevolutionary arms race Life dinner principle

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