UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Ecology (2 pages)

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Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
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Zoology 101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation 2 Adaptive Radiation and Mass extinctions Lecture 38 Current Lecture 1 Ecology 2 Dispersal and Distributions 3 Population Ecology Ecology Ecology the study of distribution and abundance of organisms What determines where a species is located Species present depends on past current positions can a species get there Dispersal once it s there can it survive evolutionary time scale decades millions of years ecological time scale hours years Biogeography study of species distribution emphasis on historical events and difference between past and present patterns of distributions Results of evolution apparent over time and also over space Historical events in earth s history had strong effects on distribution of species plate tectonics Continental Drift earth s crust is dynamic in geological time Evidence of original supercontinent of Pangaea in fossils as well as extant taxa Dispersal and Distribution Dispersal movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or their area of origin can happen due to natural movement of organisms Can happen due to human activities species introduction translocations Kinlan and Gains Ecology 2003 the scale of natural dispersal is highly variable among taxa and groups herbivores often disperse further than plants Dispersal of propagules in marine systems consistently exceeds terrestrial plants Behavior and Habitat selection some organisms do not occupy all of their potential range species distribution may be limited by habitat selection behavior Biotic factors predation parasitism competition disease Abiotic factors water oxygen salinity pH soil nutrients temperature light soil fire moisture Climate long term prevailing weather pattern temperature precipitation seasonality of conditions creates different Biomes characteristic type of ecological community associated with particular climate 2 variables temperature and precipitation rain forest desert savanna chaparral grassland mountain ranges tundra different types of forests Scope of ecological research ecologist work at levels ranging from individual organisms to the planet There are several sub disciplinary within ecology organismal population community ecosystem landscape global ecology Population Ecology explores how biotic and abiotic factors influence density distribution size age and structure of populations Population group of individuals of same species that live in the same area Characteristics of Interest Density number of individuals per unit area or volume dispersion patter of spacing among individuals in a populations Density Factors Birth positive influence Immigration positive influence Death Negative influence Emigration negative influence Dispersion Patterns Clumped aggregate in patterns due to resource availability social behavior mating opportunity Uniform evenly distributed strong territoriality social interaction competition Random position of individual is independent of other individuals occurs in the absence of strong interactions and repulsions

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