UW-Madison BIOLOGY 101 - Species interactions cont'd (2 pages)

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Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Biology 101 - Zoology 101: Animal Biology
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Zoology 101 Animal Biology Last Lecture Outline 1 Population structure 2 Species interactions Lecture 40 Current Lecture 1 Species interactions continued 2 Niche Species interactions continued Defenses against predators be difficult to see cryptic coloration Defend yourself with chemicals aposematic coloration Mimic a defended species Batesian mimicry one harmless species mimics a harmful one Mullerian mimicry 2 unpalatable species mimic each other Hard to eat spines thorns Let someone else be eaten selfish herd Ganging up on predator predator mobbing Scare or confuse predator eye spots on moths Be vigilant on the look out active defense spraying Fleeing Symbiosis interaction between organisms of 2 different species that involves direct physical contact Parasitism parasite lives in or on host Comensalism 0 not very common hitch hiking one species benefits while the other isn t effected Mutualism both benefit plants and ants birds and vertebrates Competition occurs when 2 or more species rely on some resource and the supply of the resource is limited competitive exclusion principle 2 species that share the same limiting resource cannot coexist indefinitely Interspecific competition competition between 2 speciies or more Intra specific competition competition within a species between 2 individuals of the same species Niche The sum total of an organism s use of resources in its environment how an organism fits into environment habitat temperature it prefers foot it eats Another way to state competitive exclusion principle no 2 species in the same community can have the same niche Avoiding niche overlap avoiding competition overtime natural selection should minimize competition Resource partitioning divide resources Character displacement the tendency for characteristics of sympatric populations to diverge more than allopatric populations greater differences in a trait when 2 species co occur than when either is present by itself thought to be a mechanism driving speciation Community group of populations in the same area or habitat trophic structure who eats what whom food chains linear relationship of who eats whom trophic levels Food web more realistic representation of trophic structure

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