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UWEC BIOL 196 - Carbs and Fiber

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BIO 196 1st Edition Lecture 13 Outline of Last Lecture I. CarbohydratesII. Classification of carbsIII. Monosaccharides: IV. Corn syrup v. high fructose corn syrupV. FructoseVI. Visceral fatVII. 3rd monosaccharide VIII. DisaccharidesIX. Polysaccharides Outline of Current Lecture I. PolysaccharidesII. FiberIII. Benefits of fiberIV. CVDV. Categorizing dietary fiber by solubilityVI. Brown rice v. white riceVII. Satiation VIII. SatietyThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.IX. Chemical digestionCurrent LectureI. Polysaccharidesa. Most composed of long chains of glucoseb. Starch 100-1000s of glucose units condensed togetherc. Glycogen: not from food (stored glucose in human body) liver and muscles; up to 100,000 glucosesi. Highly branched chains of glucoseII. Fiber a. Cannot be digested by large intestineb. Promotes growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria c. Classification of fiber typesi. Dietary fiber: soluble and insolubleii. Group of plant polysaccharides that are not digested by humans (beta bonds)iii. Beta bonds cannot be broken down by humans because we do not have the enzymes to break those bonds EX: celluloseIII. Benefits of fibera. CVD: cholesterol- affected by soluble fibersb. Obesity: satiation, aka lack of kcalsc. Type 2 Diabetes: slows glucose absorption; weight controld. Digestive health: prevents constipation, diverticular diseaseIV. CVDa. Blood cholesterol (soluble fiber)i. Soluble fiber binds to (cholesterol containing) bileii. Less bile recycled in liver (more is excreted)iii. Lowers blood cholesterol levels and decreases risks of CVDV. Categorizing dietary fiber by solubilitya. Soluble fiber: type that can lower blood cholesterol, slow glucose absorption, adds to satiation/satiety, food for bacteria, bind or blocks some carcinogensb. Dissolves in water c. Found in oatmeal, legumes, barley, some fruits, psyllium d. Insoluble fiber: does not dissolve in watere. Found in whole wheat, whole grains, cereals, broccolif. Decreases constipation; food for bacteria, decreases risk of diverticulitis, bind carcinogensVI. Brown rice v. white ricea. World diabetes congress Dec. 2013b. India: controlled study on overweight Indians where 50% of kcals from ricei. 3 months on white then brown; 2 week to get rid of lingering affectsii. Blood glucose 20% decrease and fasting insulin57% decrease during brown rice consumption weeksVII. Satiationa. Signals from brain that tell you, “you’ve had enough to eat”b. In humans, volume or weight of food, affects satiation more than kcals contentc. Brought on by stomach distention which releases peptides d. Produce short term effects in food intakee. Various brain centers and organs are important to satiation VIII. Satietya. Post prandial events that affect the interval between 1 meal to the next b. Affect by fat and protein intake and portion size; (those take longer to digest)c. Meal initiation most likely triggered by increase in the hormone Ghrelin, secretedfrom the Gastrointestinal Tract (receptors are in the hypothalamus)i. Decrease in glucose utilizationii. Decrease in content of intracellular glucoseIX. Chemical digestiona. Mouthi. Amylase – starch – dextrins – maltose b. Stomachi. None (no chemicals) that will change starch or maltosec. Small intestinei. (from pancreas) amylase – starch and dextrins – maltose1. On brush border


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