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UWEC BIOL 196 - Breakfasts, Gluten, and Diabetes Mellitus

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BIO 196 1st Edition Lecture 16Outline of Last Lecture Study Guide from October 30, 2014Outline of Current Lecture I. BreakfastII. Healthy breakfastsIII. Examples of healthy cerealsIV. BreadsV. Gluten- a proteinVI. Gluten sensitivity VII. Diabetes Mellitus Current LectureI. Breakfasta. Not nearly important if you last ate at midnight compared to if you last ate at 6pm the night beforei. Liver glycogen stores only last as long as 12 hours; after that glycogenesis occursb. Blood sugar and glycogen sourcec. Performance (phy. And cognitive) see improvement in vocabulary, math, memory(with breakfast)d. Skipping breakfast: unregulated hunger; overeat latere. Does not permanently slow metabolismf. People who eat breakfast are more likely to maintain weight lossg. Better lipid levels and better control of blood sugarII. Healthy breakfastsa. Whole grains, fruit, and/or vegetables, non-fat milk (or alternative)/or a protein sourceb. 400-1000 kcals (depends on how many kcals needed to maintain weight)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.c. Breakfast cereals: choose whole grain, high fiberi. Serve with milk or a protein sourceIII. Examples of healthy cerealsa. Whole wheat and oat more nutritious in rat experimenti. Some rats died, some lived with health problems, some lived healthy livesii. Packet oatmeal did better because there was added nutrients and the oatmeal was more digestibleiii. Rats did bad on rice, corn and lots of sugar cereals1. Fortification of these cereals is okay, howeverb. High fiber cereals/bran- to try and help feel more fullc. Organic does not mean healthy; organic sugar or corn is still sugar and starch!IV. Breadsa. If <1g of fiber per slice; safe to say not whole grain bread b. >3 g of fiber per slice; safe betc. Watch for “whole grain” claims on foods and compare to their normal product. Isit worth the extra cost?V. Gluten- a proteina. Sources: certain grains; wheat, rye, barley, triticale, malt syrup/flavoringb. Celiac disease; gluten sensitivity c. Gluten free does not mean “better” for youd. Celiac disease: i. Difficult to diagnoseii. Allergy to gluteniii. An inflammatory response will damage the villi of the small intestine; results in mal-absorption of nutrientsiv. An autoimmune diseasev. Symptoms: can be complicated; GI related1. Diarrhea, flatulence, steatorrhea (elimination of all fat consumed),weight loss, weakness, fatigue, severe abdominal pain2. Anemia, bone loss, nerve damage, skin disorders, hormonal imbalance, infertility, behavior problems, stunted growth (in children because they are not absorbing nutrients)3. Depression, headaches, tooth problems, increased risk of GI cancers, seizures vi. Hard to diagnose1. 1 in 100 people have; clusters in families but inheritance likelihoodnot known2. Different types- some w/o GI symptoms and some with3. Not a lot know about it VI. Gluten sensitivitya. Symptoms: IBS (between constipation and diarrhea)b. Many do not actually have (but they think they do)i. But it’s not like we can determine thatii. In 1970s people thought they all had low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)c. Moderation is keyVII. Diabetes Mellitus- in the U.S. a. CDC ~ 29 million people havei. ~9% of the American population ii. If trend continues, by 2050 1 in 3 adults will have Diabetesb. Type 1 (IDDM)i. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitusii. 5-10% of diabetes populationc. Type 2 (NIDDM)i. 90-95% of diabetes populationd. Prediabetesi. 35% of adults have it! 79 million people ii. It is a chance to fix; not a “free pass”1. Already doing damage to your heart, eyes, and


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