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UWEC BIOL 196 - Final Exam Study Guide

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BIOL 196 1st EditionExam # 3 Study Guide Lectures: 21-25 Lecture 21 (November 25) Define lipid: organic compound/nutrient (has Carbons, Oxygens, and Hydrogens) BUT water insoluble 4 major categories and examples of each:1. Fatty acids (simplest)2. Triglycerides (also called “fat” [solid or oil]3. Phospholipids (lecithin)4. Sterol (Cholesterol)List, and be able to recognize, the 3 parts of a fatty acid:(-COOH) carboxylic acid or alpha end; a methyl or omega end (-CH3); and a fatty acid backboneHow many carbons are in fatty acids and what is the typical number found?8, 16 which is most commonBe able to recognize and describe, the structures of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acidsRefer to slides 15,21,24 What are the 2 families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUF)?Omega 3 and Omega 6 What are the health effects of the 3 fatty acids above, in detail Unsaturated fats: lowers blood cholesterol (LDL) and lowers risk of CVDMonounsaturated fats: lowers total cholesterol, LDL, blood TG (when consumed from plant foods); anti-inflammatory; Mediterranean Diet: recent studies decrease risk of Type 2 Diabetes and CVDPolyunsaturated fats: lowers LDL (most studies show this effect), contain the essential fatty acids, reduce risk of CVD (especially when they replace saturated fat)Be able to rank and list the top 6 sources of saturated fat.Coconut oil, butter, beef fat, palm kernel oil, pork fat, peanut oilList the 5 main sources of monounsaturated fat given in class.Olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, olives and avocadosWhat are the 5 main sources of( omega 6)- polyunsaturated fat given in class?Cottonseed oil, canola oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, corn oilWhat is the hydrogenation? It’s effects (chemical and physical) on polyunsaturated fats? Hydrogens under pressure; become more saturated, then solid. The resulting reaction forces unsaturated fatty acids to accept additional hydrogen atoms and become at least partially saturated. In practical cooking terms, hydrogenation would convert an unsaturated vegetable oil, the kind often used for deep frying, into a partially solid form like margarine. A fully hydrogenated vegetable oil would be as thick as animal lard, but most food manufacturers do not take the hydrogenation process that far. Hydrogenating vegetable-based oils is generally less expensive than using saturated animal fats, and partial hydrogenation gives processed foods a longer shelf life.Describe and be able to recognize the structures of cis and trans fatty acids.Cis: Hydrogens are on the same side of the fatty acid backboneTrans: Hydrogens are on opposite sides of the fatty acid backboneHow much trans fat should we eat each day? What foods are they found in? How can we avoid them until they are banned?0g/day; occur naturally in butterfat and sheep fat; found in hydrogenated fats, (margarine, shortening, bakeries, restaurants, some packaged foods, cookies, frosting, donuts, pies, microwave popcorn; AVOID THESE FOODSWhat are the health problems linked with trans fatty acid intake?Increases risk for heart disease (raises LDL, lowers HDL, increases inflammation, increases risk of breast cancer and colon/rectal cancers)What is the essential omega 6 fatty acid and its active form?Linoleic acid; active form: arachidonic acidWhat are the omega 6 sources and do Americans get enough in their diets?Yes Americans get enough; plant oils: corn, soybean, cottonseed, sesame, sunflower, safflowerWhat are the 3 omega 3 essential fatty acids; the active forms; their sources; ability to convert to active forms; and do Americans get enough in their diets?Linolenic, DHA, EPA; Active forms: EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid); In linolenic acid: (in plants) canola oil, soybean oil, flax seed or oil, walnuts; DHA and EPA: in some fish and breast milk, omega3 eggs, some peanut butters (Jif omega3)Ability to convert to active forms: <5% of Omega 3 you eat will ever get turned into EPA or DHA; our bodies cannot conform it easily, so better to eat DHA and EPA directlyDo Americans get enough in their diets? Not enough, but not always such a lack of intake that it causes deficiency in our country .*Are all omega 3's equal in ability to perform functions in the body? DiscussDHA is throughout the body and very high amounts in brain and eyes. DHA and EPA are the active forms and they are able to perform in the body; Omega3 has to be changed into DHA or EPA to be utilized by the body, but less than 5% of Omega3 is turned into DHA or EPAHow do fish or fish oil decrease risk of heart disease according to the AHA? What are the recommendations of the AHA with regards to fish?There is a 32% drop in blood TG and a better ratio of HDLWhat are the functions of the essential fatty acids ? Make sure to cover eicosanoids within your answer!Part of cell membrane; eicosanoids are chemical messengers (regulation of blood pressure, bloodclotting, immune response, heart rate, vision); normal growth and development How do the active forms of the essential fatty acids function in the body?DHA and arachidonic acid: -assists with growth, development of eyes, nervous system, and mental function-in breast milk (and now added to most infant formulas and to prenatal supplements)What happens with a deficiency of essential fatty acids?Growth retardation, skin lesions, kidney and liver disorders, neurological and visual disorders, reproductive failure, chronic intestinal diseaseLecture 22 (December 2)What is a triglyceride composed of? Describe the structure.It is composed of 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol moleculeStructure: 3 fatty acids of differing lengths (zig zag pattern) What is glycerol? Structure?Glycerol is 3 Carbons; Structure like Slide 2 of Lipids Slides part 2; [-O-H]  attached to CarbonsWhat % of body and food fat are composed of triglycerides?95% of fat in body and food are triglyceridesDescribe the composition of fat cells.Fat cells are about 80% fat and 20% water and proteinDescribe digestion of triglycerides in detail- from lecture. Location, enzymes , processes involved, products, etc. Define and describe phase 1 and phase 2.Mouth: minorStomach: minorSmall intestine: 1st step: emulsification of TG by BILE and PHOSPHOLIPIDS-break apart physically2nd step: digestion of (emulsified) TG by pancreatic lipase-TG  fatty acids, glycerol, monoglycerides (glycerol with 1 fatty acid still attached)-these are absorbedDescribe what happens to the absorbed products of fat in


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