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UWEC BIOL 196 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIO 196 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Lecture 1 and part of Lecture 2 (September 4 and September 9)WellnessAccording to social scientists, humans have basic needs that are required for a quality life. According to Gary Gardner of World Watch Institute, what are these needs? Discuss.Security, good relationships, feeling there is possibility of becoming the person one was born to be. When basic needs are met, we have a greater chance of being “well” What is wellness? Quality of Life: a lifestyle, an ongoing process, awareness, and decision makingList and study the components of the 7 dimensions of wellness covered in class.1. Physical health/wellness: exercise regularly, sleep, nutrition, seeking medical help, choosing to do no self harm2. Emotional wellness: positive feeling about life, feelings, awareness, acceptance, self respect, coping skills, accepts one can only change and control oneself.3. Intellectual wellness: enjoys learning, thinks critically, uses resources, takes challenging courses4. Social Wellness: tied in with emotional wellness; empathizes, communicates, relationships based on trust and respect5. Spiritual Wellness: deep appreciation for life, seeks meaning, purpose and inner peace, prays or meditates, compassion and sense of justice, most include a belief in God or a Higher Power6. Environmental wellness: aware of impact of one’s choices, taking action7. Occupational wellness: understands the value of work, does not feel trapped or over stressed in one’s jobWhat are the exercise recommendations from the ACSP and AHA? Every adult should get: 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity 5 days a week; OR 20 minutes 3 days a week of vigorous-intensity; AND 8-10 minutes of strength-training 2 days a week. (8-12 reps each)Why do we need movement in addition bouts of regular exercise? Lecture and D2L article)Affects risk of disease, lowers calorie needsDiscuss the “plan of action” for becoming well through our choices and actions.1. Awareness2. Assessment3. Plot changes: areas you aren’t doing good enough in, plan changes4. Make changes, assess and keep tryingList and rank the 3 most common causes of death..in the U.S. Are they related to wellness? Study lifestyle factors related to wellness and disease in the U.S.(slide), and study the ones that have the greatest effect on health and death1. Heart Disease: lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise2. Cancer3. Chronic lower respiratory disease: Associated with smokingLecture 2 – Part of Lecture 5 (September 9, 11, 16, part of September 18) Introduction to nutritionDefine nutrition and discuss the complexity (discipline wise) of the “science of nutrition”.The science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support all the processes required for existence Includes the study of: immunology, medicine, genetics, biology, physiology, biochemistry, education, psychology, sociology, economics, politicsWhat is a nutrient and the 3 major functions?Nutrient: substance used by the body for 1-3 major functions1. Energy2. Regulation of body processes3. Storage What are the 6 major categories of nutrients?1. Carbohydrates2. Proteins3. Lipids4. Water5. Vitamins6. Minerals Functional foods: discuss potential benefits and problems with formulated functional foods.Contain significant nutrients or non-nutrient health promoting substancesProcessed food, to which a functional substance is added to increase “health benefits” such as iron, or fortified cerealsDiscuss results of 2012 Standford study on organically grown foods. What are the significant benefits of organically grown foods over conventionally grown ones?Enhances ecological harmony, better for the environment, less pesticide residue (7% in organic versus 38% in conventionally grown), Study the RDA’s from lecture and your text- p. 44 (you do not have to know the RDA’s of specific nutrients, but instead study what they are , how they are used, etc.DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes: provide reference standards; a set of 4 types of nutrient intake reference standards used to assess and plan dietary intake. These include:EAR: Estimated Average Requirement- the amount of a nutrient that meets the physiological requirements of half the healthy population of similar individualsRDA: Recommended Dietary Allowance- the average intake of a nutrient thought to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%) healthy people in a specified life stage and sexAI : Adequate Intake level-nutrient intake of healthy populations that appears to support adequate nutritional status; established when RDAs cannot be determinedUL: Tolerable Upper Intake Level-the highest level of chronic intake of a nutrient thought to be not detrimental to health What nutrients and non-nutrient components give us energy and how much? What is the energy used by human cells?Carbohydrates: 4kcal/gFat: 9 kcal/gProtein: 4 kcal/g(Alcohol): 7 kcal/g – Not a nutrient Energy: capacity to do work; human cells use ATP- Adenosine TriphosphateStudy nutrient composition of people- women and men. Know %’s for each.Woman: water 59%, protein 13%, fat 22-32%, Minerals 5%, Carbs less than 1%, vitamins trace %Man: water 62%, protein 16%, fat 16-24%, minerals 6%, carbs less than 1%, vitamins trace %Where is most of the water in the body found? What fraction is found in the two major areas? Define the terms: intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and vascular.2/3 of water is intracellular (inside the cells)1/3 of water is extracellular (outside the cells)This includes water that is part of blood, (vascular) and water between the cells (interstitial fluid)Study the current, specific 2020 Healthy People nutrition/food objectives that were discussed inclass.Reduce amount and prevent obesity in adults and kidsReduce iron deficiency in young kids, women and pregnant womenReduce food insecurity in kidsFor those 2 years and older:-Increase: fruits, vegetables, calcium, whole grains, less than 30% fat consumption, nutritious food in schools and day cares-Reduce: intake of saturated fat, sodium, sugarHow does the Harvard plate differ from the myplate.gov and why?It adds healthy oils and takes away dairy. Healthy oils help with absorption of vitamins and minerals in vegetables. Dairy can be high in saturated fat, sugars, etc. List and study/discuss the 6 principles given in class for planning a healthy diet.1. Variety2. Balance3. Nutrient dense foods4. Moderation5. Kcal/portion


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