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UWEC BIOL 196 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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BIO 196 1st EditionExam # 2 Study Guide Lectures: 8 - 15Lecture 8 (October 2)List the 3 major sites of body protein and percentages40% skeletal muscle; 30% skin and blood; 25% body organsDefine deaminiation. Where does deaminiation occur? Describe the process.The removal of an amino group from an amino acid that results in the formation of an alpha-keto acid. The Nitrogen containing amino group of the glucogenic amino acid is removed in the liver. NH2 converted into urea (in the liver) for excretion in urine. Define and study the examples of the terms: complete; incomplete; BVIncomplete protein source: a food that lacks or contains very low amounts of one or more essential amino acids; nuts, seeds, legumes, grains, vegetables (eating a variety of these will make you more able to get all the necessary amino acids though)Complete protein source: a food that contains all the essential amino acids in relative amounts needed by the body; animal-derived foods such as meat, eggs, fish, milkBV: Biological Value: how efficiently food protein is turned into body proteinWhat is the major food source of protein in the American diet? 69% is from animal proteinsLecture 9 (October 7) Protein needs for those over 30?25-30 g 3 times a day; and the body can do a better job of repairing proteins if eaten over the course of 3times per day, (not just all at supper). RDA’s for average adults and for those who participate in very active lifestyles or exercise? Be able to use the formula. Loss of efficiency in protein utilization; decrease in anabolic drive for development of lean tissue. For this reason, diet and physical activity become more and more important. After age 30 you need about 30g/meal to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. Also important to space out the protein intake throughout the day to prevent sarcopenia and osteoporosis. When losing weight (on purpose), you need plenty of protein because otherwise you can lose 30-40% of your lean tissue!What is the current world population?7,196,680,700 people According to the FAO, how many people are chronically hungry? 3 groups of hungry people.805 million are chronically hungry. They are rural poor, urban poor, victims of catastrophesWhat 3 types of global malnutrition did we discuss? Define and discuss each in detail.Chronic hunger: Affects 805 million; 98% are in developing countries. Means on a daily basis, they lack a necessary amount of nutrients. Commonly a lack of 100-400 kcals/day.Protein-energy malnutrition: protein deficiency; affects 1 in 4 children in the world. Major typesinclude: Kwashiorkor (begins around age 2 when breast feeding stops; edema/swelling; water seeps into interstitial liquid; swollen stomach because of fatty liver; stunted growth; weak immune system; apathy, too tired to cry, learn, has permanent affect on adult life). Marasmus (severe lack of calories, protein, food, extreme stunted growth, weak immune system, can end in fewer brain cells if developed in early infancy). Common vitamin/mineral deficiencies: iron, vitamin A, iodine; 1 in 3 people are malnourished.Lecture 10 (October 9)Costs of hunger:High infant mortality rate, high child death rate, life expectancy varies by country, decrease in cognitive functioning, poor school performance, decreased work output, increase in chronic diseases, anemia and iron deficiencies.What does IMR stand for? If a country has an IMR of 29, what does that mean?Infant mortality rate. Number of children that die before their 1st birthday, per 1000 births.When is a decrease in cognitive functioning most likely to occur from hunger and malnutrition? Lack of protein during pregnancy, and especially during first 6 months after birth. Can cause permanent behavioral and physical deficits.Lecture 11 (October 14)Which continent has the greatest number of hungry people?AfricaWhich country has the greatest number of hungry people? IndiaLecture 12 (October 16)List each monosaccharide and sources of each. What is their chemical formula? ALL HAVE THE FORMULA C6H12O6. The difference is the shape of these sugars.Glucose: blood sugar, honey, fruits, vegetables. A six carbon monosaccharide produced by photosynthesis in plantsFructose: a six carbon monosaccharide found in fruits and vegetablesGalactose: a six carbon monosaccharide found mainly bonded with glucose to form the milk sugar lactose.Where is fructose metabolized? What products are produced from it?Metabolized in liver. Fats are produced from it, (triglycerides). What 2 specific foods conrtirbuted the most to the increase in calorie consumption from 1970 topresent?Fats and grains.What types of bonds are in disaccharides?Glycosidic bondsList the disaccharides, their sources, their products when broken down.Maltose: 2 glucoses; breakdown production of starch.Sucrose: 1 glucose and 1 fructose; sugar (doesn’t matter whether powdered, brown, white, etc.)Lactose: 1 glucose and 1 galactose; cow’s milkLecture 13 (October 21)What are most polysaccharides composed of?Long chains of glucose units List the 3 main polysaccharides, their sources, composition/structure, types of bond and effects (of the bond type) on digestion.Starch: storage in plants; 100-100,000s of glucoses; highly branched chains of glucose; grain, potatoes, legumes, vegetablesGlycogen: not from food; stored glucose in the human body; up to 100,000 glucoses; highly branched chains of glucose; glycosidic bondsFiber: beta bonds- humans do not have the enzymes to break down these bonds, so cannot be digested by small intestine; promotes growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria; soluble and insoluble fiber; oatmeal, legumes, barley, some fruits. Where is glycogen found in the body? What are the functions in these tissue types?Liver: stores glucose for up to 12 hoursMuscles: stores in proteins and can be used as a source of energy later, (past 12 hours of no food)Lecture 14 (October 23)Describe the transport of each end product of carb digestion.Small intestine: villi – portal vein – liver (hepatic)Vein – heart (blood)Glucose – heart (glucose is blood sugar)Galactose – liver (can be converted to glucose, ATP)Fructose – liver (can be converted to glucose, ATP, Triglycerides aka fat)Lecture 15 (October 28)How many carbs does your brain use each day? Energy sources for the brain?At least 100-130 grams of glucose/day; if starved, energy comes from your protein tissuesHow does a lack of carbs cause ketones to be made? What are ketones? Are they harmful


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