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UWEC BIOL 196 - Nutrient Density and Digestion

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BIOL 196 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Nutrients in the Human BodyII. WaterIII. Healthy People goals for 2020: Where Americans need to improveIV. For people two years and olderV. Food guidesVI. What are Americans eating?Outline of Current Lecture I. Nutrient DensityII. Plan and ActionIII. The Digestive ProcessesIV. Digestion:V. Mechanical Digestion:VI. Chemical Digestion:VII. Parts of GI Tract/functionsCurrent LectureI. Nutrient Densitya. Varietyb. Balancec. Nutrient dense foodsi. 1 cup of mashed sweet potatoes- 8 nutrients you get >30% of your RDAii. 1 cup of mashed white potatoes- 2 nutrients you get >30% of your RDAd. Moderatione. Kcal/portion controli. Restaurants vary in Calories per (a burger for example)ii. People think they burn more calories than they actually doThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.f. Personal and family disease/health: know your family’s historyII. Plan and Actiona. You have the control over what is in your fridge, house, room, etc. b. Identify obstacles and where you need to improvec. “I cannot afford healthy food” i. True for someii. An EXCUSE for others1. Need to prioritize what’s important to spend your money on2. You can buy your coffee, alcohol, soda, but not healthy food?III. The Digestive Processesa. Digestive (GI = Gastrointestinal) Tracti. Mostly muscular tubes, except stomach b. 4 layers of tissue that make up the GIi. Mucosa- mainly epithelial cells, comes in contact with food1. GI secretions2. Lifespan: very shortii. Submucosa- connective tissue1. Rich supply of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels2. Network of nervesiii. Muscularis- 2 layers of smooth muscle1. Longitudinal layer and circular layer2. Mixing of food mass with digestive secretionsiv. Serosa- protect GI tract1. Secretes fluid that lubricates digestive organsIV. Digestion: a. Definition: includes the mechanical and chemical processes by which foods and nutrients are broken down into simpler forms that can be absorbedb. Where? Majority takes place in small intestineV. Mechanical Digestion:a. Chewing/mastication-bolusb. Peristalsis- <10 seconds; wave like motions because of contractions/relaxations of muscles which pushes food through GI tractc. Segmentation- most this takes place in small intestine; back and forth mixing of foodVI. Chemical Digestiona. Salivab. Pancreatic juicec. Biled. Gastric juicee. Intestinal juiceVII. Parts of GI tract/functionsa. Mouth and salivary glandsi. Mastication; saliva mucus (digestive enzyme)ii. Bolus- food that has been chewed and mixed with salivaiii. Epiglottis- closes so food doesn’t get in lungsb. Esophagusi. Main function- delivery of foodii. About 10 inches longiii. At bottom there is a sphincter musclec. Stomachi. Mixing food with gastric secretions- liquefaction = Chymeii. Third layer is smooth diagonal muscleiii. Digests proteiniv. Pyloric sphincterv. 4 cup (1 L) capacity- food remains 2-3 hours or longer for large mealsvi. Gastric secretions and gastric pits: produce mucus, HCL, and


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