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UWEC BIOL 196 - Digestion and Protein Introduction

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BIO 196 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Nutrient DensityII. Plan and ActionIII. The Digestive ProcessesIV. Digestion:V. Mechanical Digestion:VI. Chemical Digestion:VII. Parts of GI Tract/functionsOutline of Current Lecture I. Small IntestineII. Digestion in Small IntestineIII. PancreasIV. Large IntestineV. AbsorptionVI. TransportationVII. ProteinsVIII. Amino AcidsCurrent LectureI. Small Intestinea. Chemical digestion and nutrient absorptionThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.b. Regions: duodenum, jejunum, ileumc. Lining of small intestinei. Plica circularesii. Villi: finger like cells that absorb nutrients (enterocytes)iii. Lactealiv. Microvilli: on top of villi (brush border) or parts of brush border; trap nutrients to be absorbedII. Digestion in Small Intestinea. Regulated by hormonesb. Pancreatic juicec. Bilei. Produced in liver; stored in gallbladderii. Digestion of fatty foodsiii. Enterohepatic circulation: some bile will be used again (recycled)d. Small intestine has access to enzymes from:i. Pancreasii. Bile from gallbladder (but made in liver)III. Pancreasa. Enzymesb. Bicarbonate: used to buffer acid coming into small intestine; like mucus neutralizes stomach liningIV. Large Intestinea. Major functions:i. Absorption and reabsorptionii. Microbial actioniii. More than 400 species of bacteriaiv. Probiotic and prebiotic foodsv. Storage and eliminationV. Absorptiona. The taking up of nutrients after digestion, into the enterocytes, so they can be transported out to the body cellsb. Enterocytes: absorptive cells lining the small intestinec. Nutrient absorption: passive and active transport mechanismsd. Small intestine absorptioni. Entry into and exit from enterocytese. Small intestinal lining:i. Provides large area where nutrient digestion and absorption occursii. Villi (blood vessels): lactealsVI. Transportationa. Blood or portal routeb. Lymphatic routeVII. Proteinsa. Nitrogen containing macronutrientsb. Made from amino acidsc. Joined together by peptide bondsd. Required for cell functioninge. Used for structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organsVIII. Amino Acidsa. Contain C, H, O, Nb. Some contain Sulfurc. 20 types of proteinsd. Essential and non-essentiali. Does not mean one is important, and one is not importantii. We cannot make them at all, or not enough


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