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FSU CCJ 2020 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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CCJ2020 Exam 3 Study Guide (Ch.10-13)Chapter 10: History of jails/prisonso In early jails prisoners were responsible for their own necessities and using their own money to buy basicso Both genders and children were in the same cello Walnut Street Jail Renovated in 1790 Reforms included food, water, separation based on gender and age, separated healthy and mentally ill, prohibited alcohol and was more humane. Failed because of overcrowding in the jail.o Eastern State Penitentiary Penitentiary: correctional institution based on the concept that inmates could change their criminality through reflection and penitence. Individual cells and were required to learn new skills Expected to read the Bible when not working Invoking guilt would lead inmates to rehabilitation “Silent system”- prisoners couldn’t talk to other inmates, only to prison guards and other officials. Corporal punishment was eliminatedo Auburn System Max-security prison, cells in center of secured building Unique prison structure including 5 tiers, back-to-back design, stacked on top of each other Labor was combined to create profitable industries and construction projects  economically self sufficient Congregate work system, cells were only used for sleeping. During the day inmates worked Prisoners were required to march everywhere; their schedules wee strictly regulated. Solitary confinement: est. in 1821 by NY legislature confined the worst inmates so they have no contact with other people. o Southern Penal System Agrarian based Convict lease system-supply farms with labor once provided by slaves Prisoners were shackled together to prevent escape attempts: “chain gang” Prison farm system-Using inmates as a labor force farmsand plantations for profit Challenges to Correctional Systemo Highest incarceration rate in the worldo Causes of the highest incarceration rates in the worldo Rising cost of incarceration Education & Rehab process-abandoned the idea that criminality is inherited, leading to rehab and education programs. Restrictions on prison-made goods and services-federal gov’t and states passed laws prohibiting the sale of convict-made products, they competed w/ local businesses Prisoner Rights-abandoned the idea of civil death- Civil death: bars prison inmates from bringing lawsuit in civil court related to his/her treatment or conditions of incarceration.- Warren court : US Supreme Court years when ChiefJustice Warren made landmark decisions increasing inmate rights Number of prisons  Cost of correctionso Half of all incarcerated are non-violent offenders Jails: Short term multi purpose holding facilities, gateway into criminal justice systemo Managed by sheriff’s office or county dept. of correctionso NOT the same as police holding cells, booking cells, or lockup facilities o Amount of jail beds increase in 90s because of the “war on crime”o 4 Types of jails: City Federal County Native Americano Most inmates in local jails have not been convicted of a crimeo Most at 95% capacity or beyond capacityo Native American jails are only located on reservations and deal with crimes committed ONLY on those reservations misdemeanors onlyo Functions of local jails: Receive people pending arraignment and hold until trial,conviction and sentencing Readmit probation, parole, and bail-bond violators Temporary detain juveniles pending transfer to authorities Hold people for military, protective custody, contempt and courts as witnesses Release convicted inmates to community after they completer their sentence Transfer inmates to federal, state, and other authorities. Houses inmates for other authorizes because of crowded facilities Operate community-based reporting programs with day reporting, home detention and electronic monitoring.  Hold inmates for short sentences (max is usually 1 year) State Prisons: Correctional institutions with only convicted offenders, usually felonies.o Inmates require education, counseling, vocation, and recreational programs not required in jails.o 1% below capacity and 15% above capacity Prison Classification: Reception and diagnosis of an inmate deciding the appropriate security level to place him/her and proper services. It enhances the safety of prison environment Considers fewer inmate characteristics like gender, age,security, risk and special populations. Classification includes:- Identification- Criminal record- Mental capacity and psychological stability- Other factors i.e. gang affiliation, age and education Induction includes- Exchange of clothing for prison clothes- Weapons and contraband search- Photographs, fingerprints, and assigned ID number Reasons for prison classification change- Behavior- Change in status- Other considerations Prison Consultants: Private people who give convicted defendants advice and counsel on how tot best present themselves during classification and how to behave in prison. Prison Population: o General-nonrestricted inmates who have access to services, programs, recreation and other inmate interaction.o Special- inmates with characteristics that may result in significant risks to themselves, other inmates, and staffo *Women have added considerations during prison classification process Equality b/w males and females Health issues Victimization Dependent children and broken families.  Institutional Racism/Incarceration: Indicator of the criminal justices system’s discrimination against minorities is the ratio of minorities to whites prison. o Disproportionate Confinement- intentional distributions of people by race in correctional institutions African-American men’s disenfranchisement from thepolitical system District of Columbia and its 46 states deprive feloniesthe right to vote wile they are in prison Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP): Agency responsible for the administrative oversight of federal prisons and jailso Federal prison population became overcrowdednew federal prisons constructed. Over 100 federal prisons today.o Federal inmates can be housed in any federal prison in the country. Allows BOP to move troublemakers to different prisons o BOP has 5 prison classifications Administrative Maximum (ADMAX)-Florence, Co High Security Medium Security Low Security Minimum Security o Alcatraz prison-built in 1934,was most violent and


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